Tenofovir (all routes except local)

Caesarean

R analysis
id Study   Lib. in paper Exposition period    Study type  Control type 
 
Tags OR 95%CI x1/n1 x0/n0 no cases no exposed ROB Ref.
S5249
R13568
Seidel, 2020 C-section (primary and secondary) during pregnancy (anytime or not specified) retrospective cohort exposed to other treatment, sick Adjustment: No Control group: zidovudine-based Exposed group: TDF (mix or unspecified regimens) Indication: HIV 1.25 [0.70;2.22] C 78/106   87/126 165 106
ref
S5739
R14246
Chang, 2019 Caesarean section 3rd trimester prospective cohort unexposed, sick Adjustment: No Control group: Unexposed, sick Exposed group: TDF (only) Indication: CHB 1.15 [0.63;2.10] C 36/110   27/91 63 110
ref
S5175
R13490
Liu (Controls exposed to LDT), 2019 Caesarean section 3rd trimester prospective cohort exposed to other treatment, sick excluded Adjustment: No Control group: telbivudine Exposed group: TDF (only) Indication: CHB 1.00 [0.75;1.35] C
excluded (control group)
162/325   199/400 361 325
ref
S5174
R13483
Liu (Controls unexposed, sick), 2019 Caesarean section 3rd trimester prospective cohort unexposed, sick Adjustment: No Control group: Unexposed, sick Exposed group: TDF (only) Indication: CHB 1.02 [0.69;1.53] C 162/325   67/136 229 325
ref
S5293
R13656
Zeng (Controls exposed to telbivudine), 2019 Cesarean section 2nd and/or 3rd trimester prospective cohort exposed to other treatment, sick excluded Adjustment: No Control group: telbivudine Exposed group: TDF (only) Indication: CHB 1.05 [0.52;2.10] C
excluded (control group)
20/71   24/88 44 71
ref
S5712
R14212
Zeng (Controls unexposed, sick), 2019 Cesarean section 2nd and/or 3rd trimester prospective cohort unexposed, sick Adjustment: No Control group: Unexposed, sick Exposed group: TDF (only) Indication: CHB 1.25 [0.53;2.93] C 20/71   11/46 31 71
ref
S5134
R13381
Floridia, 2018 Non selective cesarean section during pregnancy (anytime or not specified) cohort exposed to other treatment, sick Adjustment: No Control group: Abacavir/Lamivudine-based Exposed group: TDF/emtricitabine-based Indication: HIV 1.54 [1.00;2.39] 113/562   30/214 143 562
ref
S5304
R14195
Jourdain a, 2018 Caesarean section 3rd trimester randomized controlled trial unexposed, sick Adjustment: Randomisation Control group: Unexposed, sick Exposed group: TDF (only) Indication: CHB 0.74 [0.45;1.21] C 38/162   47/160 85 162
ref
S5321
R13774
Lin, 2018 Cesarean section 3rd trimester randomized controlled trial unexposed, sick Adjustment: Randomisation Control group: Unexposed, sick Exposed group: TDF (only) Indication: CHB 1.14 [0.52;2.50] C 21/59   17/52 38 59
ref
S5290
R13649
Seo, 2018 Caesarean section 3rd trimester retrospective cohort exposed to other treatment, sick Adjustment: No Control group: telbivudine Exposed group: TDF (only) Indication: CHB 0.40 [0.04;3.76] C 1/11   6/30 7 11
ref
S5737
R14244
Wakano (Controls exposed to lamivudine), 2018 Caesarean section 2nd and/or 3rd trimester prospective cohort exposed to other treatment, sick excluded Adjustment: No Control group: Lamivudine Exposed group: TDF (only) Indication: CHB 1.67 [0.02;137.36] C
excluded (control group)
0/2   0/3 0 2
ref
S5738
R14243
Wakano (Controls unexposed, sick), 2018 Cesarean section 2nd and/or 3rd trimester prospective cohort unexposed, sick Adjustment: No Control group: Unexposed, sick Exposed group: TDF (only) Indication: CHB 0.33 [0.01;16.80] C 0/2   1/3 1 2
ref
S5240
R13543
Samadi Kochaksaraei, 2016 Caesarean (emergent and elective) during pregnancy (anytime or not specified) prospective cohort unexposed, sick Adjustment: No Control group: Unexposed, sick Exposed group: TDF (only) Indication: CHB 1.63 [0.64;4.16] C 8/23   36/146 44 23
ref
S5129
R13337
Colbers, 2015 Caesarean section during pregnancy (anytime or not specified) prospective cohort exposed to other treatment, sick Adjustment: No Control group: ritonavir/atazanavir-based Exposed group: TDF/ritonavir/atazanavir-based Indication: HIV 2.08 [0.39;11.06] C 13/18   5/9 18 18
ref
S5244
R13559
Greenup (Controls exposed to lamivudine), 2014 Caesarean Section (elective and emergency) 2nd and/or 3rd trimester prospective cohort exposed to other treatment, sick excluded Adjustment: No Control group: Lamivudine Exposed group: TDF (only) Indication: CHB 0.71 [0.28;1.82] C
excluded (control group)
10/58   12/53 22 58
ref
S5243
R13549
Greenup (Controls unexposed, sick), 2014 Caesarean Section (elective and emergency) 2nd and/or 3rd trimester prospective cohort unexposed, sick Adjustment: No Control group: Unexposed, sick Exposed group: TDF (only) Indication: CHB 1.88 [0.37;9.40] C 10/58   2/20 12 58
ref
S5122
R13279
Gibb, 2012 Caesarean (emergency and elective) throughout pregnancy prospective cohort exposed to other treatment, sick Adjustment: No Control group: zidovudine/lamivudine-based Exposed group: TDF/zidovudine/lamivudine Indication: HIV 0.64 [0.30;1.37] C 19/110   15/61 34 110
ref
Total 13 studies 1.10 [0.92;1.33] 870 1,617
x1: number of endpoints among exposed, n1: number of exposed; x0: number of endpoints among non exposed, n0: number of non exposed; C: calculated odds ratio from numbers of events and effectives

Forest plot

StudyTE95% CIn casesn exposedweightROBABCDEF Seidel, 2020Seidel, 2020 1.25[0.70; 2.22]16510611%ROB confusion: NAROB selection: NAROB classification: NAROB missing: NAROB mesure: NAROB reporting: NA Chang, 2019Chang, 2019 1.15[0.63; 2.10]6311010%ROB confusion: NAROB selection: NAROB classification: NAROB missing: NAROB mesure: NAROB reporting: NA Liu (Controls unexposed, sick), 2019Liu, 2019 1 1.02[0.69; 1.53]22932522%ROB confusion: NAROB selection: NAROB classification: NAROB missing: NAROB mesure: NAROB reporting: NA Zeng (Controls unexposed, sick), 2019Zeng, 2019 2 1.25[0.53; 2.93]31715%ROB confusion: NAROB selection: NAROB classification: NAROB missing: NAROB mesure: NAROB reporting: NA Floridia, 2018Floridia, 2018 1.54[1.00; 2.39]14356219%ROB confusion: NAROB selection: NAROB classification: NAROB missing: NAROB mesure: NAROB reporting: NA Jourdain a, 2018Jourdain a, 2018 0.74[0.45; 1.21]8516214%ROB confusion: NAROB selection: NAROB classification: NAROB missing: NAROB mesure: NAROB reporting: NA Lin, 2018Lin, 2018 1.14[0.52; 2.50]38596%ROB confusion: NAROB selection: NAROB classification: NAROB missing: NAROB mesure: NAROB reporting: NA Seo, 2018Seo, 2018 0.40[0.04; 3.76]7111%ROB confusion: NAROB selection: NAROB classification: NAROB missing: NAROB mesure: NAROB reporting: NA Wakano (Controls unexposed, sick), 2018Wakano, 2018 3 0.33[0.01; 16.80]120%ROB confusion: NAROB selection: NAROB classification: NAROB missing: NAROB mesure: NAROB reporting: NA Samadi Kochaksaraei, 2016Samadi Kochaksaraei, 2016 1.63[0.64; 4.16]44234%ROB confusion: NAROB selection: NAROB classification: NAROB missing: NAROB mesure: NAROB reporting: NA Colbers, 2015Colbers, 2015 2.08[0.39; 11.06]18181%ROB confusion: NAROB selection: NAROB classification: NAROB missing: NAROB mesure: NAROB reporting: NA Greenup (Controls unexposed, sick), 2014Greenup, 2014 4 1.88[0.37; 9.40]12581%ROB confusion: NAROB selection: NAROB classification: NAROB missing: NAROB mesure: NAROB reporting: NA Gibb, 2012Gibb, 2012 0.64[0.30; 1.37]341106%ROB confusion: NAROB selection: NAROB classification: NAROB missing: NAROB mesure: NAROB reporting: NA Total (13 studies) I2 = 0% 1.10[0.92; 1.33]8701,6170.25.01.0ROB: A: confusion, B: selection, C: classification, D: missing, E: measurement, F: reportinglow,moderate,serious,critical,unclear,

1: Controls unexposed, sick; 2: Controls unexposed, sick; 3: Controls unexposed, sick; 4: Controls unexposed, sick;

Sensitivity analysis

SubsetTE95% CIn casesn exposedkI2 Type of studies cohort studiescohort studies 1.10[0.92; 1.33]8701,6170%NASeidel, 2020 Chang, 2019 Liu (Controls unexposed, sick), 2019 Zeng (Controls unexposed, sick), 2019 Floridia, 2018 Jourdain a, 2018 Lin, 2018 Seo, 2018 Wakano (Controls unexposed, sick), 2018 Samadi Kochaksaraei, 2016 Colbers, 2015 Greenup (Controls unexposed, sick), 2014 Gibb, 2012 13 case control studiescase control studies 0 RCTRCT 0.83[0.55; 1.27]1232210%NAJourdain a, 2018 Lin, 2018 2 Type of controls unexposed, sickunexposed, sick 1.03[0.81; 1.31]5038100%NAChang, 2019 Liu (Controls unexposed, sick), 2019 Zeng (Controls unexposed, sick), 2019 Jourdain a, 2018 Lin, 2018 Wakano (Controls unexposed, sick), 2018 Samadi Kochaksaraei, 2016 Greenup (Controls unexposed, sick), 2014 8 exposed to other treatment, sickexposed to other treatment, sick 1.18[0.80; 1.75]36780723%NASeidel, 2020 Floridia, 2018 Seo, 2018 Colbers, 2015 Gibb, 2012 5 Tags Adjustment   - No  - No 1.19[0.96; 1.46]7471,3960%NASeidel, 2020 Chang, 2019 Liu (Controls unexposed, sick), 2019 Zeng (Controls unexposed, sick), 2019 Floridia, 2018 Seo, 2018 Wakano (Controls unexposed, sick), 2018 Samadi Kochaksaraei, 2016 Colbers, 2015 Greenup (Controls unexposed, sick), 2014 Gibb, 2012 11   - Randomisation  - Randomisation 0.83[0.55; 1.27]1232210%NAJourdain a, 2018 Lin, 2018 2 Control group   - Abacavir/Lamivudine-based  - Abacavir/Lamivudine-based 1.54[1.00; 2.39]143562 -NAFloridia, 2018 1   - ritonavir/atazanavir-based  - ritonavir/atazanavir-based 2.08[0.39; 11.06]1818 -NAColbers, 2015 1   - telbivudine  - telbivudine 0.40[0.04; 3.76]711 -NASeo, 2018 1   - Unexposed, sick  - Unexposed, sick 1.03[0.81; 1.31]5038100%NAChang, 2019 Liu (Controls unexposed, sick), 2019 Zeng (Controls unexposed, sick), 2019 Jourdain a, 2018 Lin, 2018 Wakano (Controls unexposed, sick), 2018 Samadi Kochaksaraei, 2016 Greenup (Controls unexposed, sick), 2014 8   - zidovudine/lamivudine-based  - zidovudine/lamivudine-based 0.64[0.30; 1.37]34110 -NAGibb, 2012 1   - zidovudine-based  - zidovudine-based 1.25[0.70; 2.22]165106 -NASeidel, 2020 1 Exposed group   - TDF (mix or unspecified regimens)  - TDF (mix or unspecified regimens) 1.25[0.70; 2.22]165106 -NASeidel, 2020 1   - TDF (only)  - TDF (only) 1.02[0.81; 1.29]5108210%NAChang, 2019 Liu (Controls unexposed, sick), 2019 Zeng (Controls unexposed, sick), 2019 Jourdain a, 2018 Lin, 2018 Seo, 2018 Wakano (Controls unexposed, sick), 2018 Samadi Kochaksaraei, 2016 Greenup (Controls unexposed, sick), 2014 9   - TDF/emtricitabine-based  - TDF/emtricitabine-based 1.54[1.00; 2.39]143562 -NAFloridia, 2018 1   - TDF/ritonavir/atazanavir-based  - TDF/ritonavir/atazanavir-based 2.08[0.39; 11.06]1818 -NAColbers, 2015 1   - TDF/zidovudine/lamivudine  - TDF/zidovudine/lamivudine 0.64[0.30; 1.37]34110 -NAGibb, 2012 1 Indication   - CHB  - CHB 1.02[0.81; 1.29]5108210%NAChang, 2019 Liu (Controls unexposed, sick), 2019 Zeng (Controls unexposed, sick), 2019 Jourdain a, 2018 Lin, 2018 Seo, 2018 Wakano (Controls unexposed, sick), 2018 Samadi Kochaksaraei, 2016 Greenup (Controls unexposed, sick), 2014 9   - HIV  - HIV 1.22[0.82; 1.82]36079628%NASeidel, 2020 Floridia, 2018 Colbers, 2015 Gibb, 2012 4 All studiesAll studies 1.10[0.92; 1.33]8701,6170%NASeidel, 2020 Chang, 2019 Liu (Controls unexposed, sick), 2019 Zeng (Controls unexposed, sick), 2019 Floridia, 2018 Jourdain a, 2018 Lin, 2018 Seo, 2018 Wakano (Controls unexposed, sick), 2018 Samadi Kochaksaraei, 2016 Colbers, 2015 Greenup (Controls unexposed, sick), 2014 Gibb, 2012 130.15.01.0

Publication bias and p-hacking diagnosis

funnel plot
0.0-4.74.82.4000.000Seidel, 2020Chang, 2019Liu (Controls unexposed, sick), 2019Zeng (Controls unexposed, sick), 2019Floridia, 2018Jourdain a, 2018Lin, 2018Seo, 2018Wakano (Controls unexposed, sick), 2018Samadi Kochaksaraei, 2016Colbers, 2015Greenup (Controls unexposed, sick), 2014Gibb, 2012

Asymetry test p-value = 0.8784 (by Egger's regression)

slope=0.1270 (0.1964); intercept=-0.0888 (0.5666); t=0.1566; p=0.8784

p values plot
0.01.00.01.0

Sub-groups analysis using all included studies

excluded 5244, 5737, 5175, 5293

Sub-groupsTE95% CIn casesn exposedkI2ROB type of controls unexposed, sick controlsunexposed, sick controls 1.03[0.81; 1.31]5038100%NAChang, 2019 Liu (Controls unexposed, sick), 2019 Zeng (Controls unexposed, sick), 2019 Jourdain a, 2018 Lin, 2018 Wakano (Controls unexposed, sick), 2018 Samadi Kochaksaraei, 2016 Greenup (Controls unexposed, sick), 2014 8 exposed to other treatment, sick controlsexposed to other treatment, sick controls 1.08[0.89; 1.32]7941,2630%NASeidel, 2020 Liu (Controls exposed to LDT), 2019 Zeng (Controls exposed to telbivudine), 2019 Floridia, 2018 Seo, 2018 Wakano (Controls exposed to lamivudine), 2018 Colbers, 2015 Greenup (Controls exposed to lamivudine), 2014 Gibb, 2012 90.510.01.0