Hydroxychloroquine


Study Exclusion reasons Rmk Reference
Koh, 2015 inadequate or absent control group EXCLUDED: Analysis performed according to illness. Medications reported but no distinct analysis according to medications (co-exposure with different treatments). => No adequate control group (unexposed to hydroxychloroquine).

Koh Lupus 2015; 24:210-7 10.1177/0961203314555352

Levy, 1991 inadequate or absent control group EXCLUDED: analysis of hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine, treatments with a too close chemical structure and adverse effects to be compared. No adequate control group.

Levy Am J Perinatol 1991; 8:174-8 10.1055/s-2007-999371

Zhou, 2019 inadequate or absent control group EXCLUDED: Analysis performed according to illness. Medications reported but no distinct analysis according to medications (co-exposure with different treatments). => No adequate control group (unexposed to hydroxychloroquine).

Zhou Clin. Rheumatol. 2019; 38:3161-3168 10.1007/s10067-019-04670-7

Motta, 2007 inadequate or absent control group EXCLUDED: analysis according to illness statut, with hydroxychoroquine exposure in the 2 groups ("a higher number of anti-SSA/Ro-positive mothers received hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) during pregnancy, as compared with the control group").

Motta J Perinatol 2007; 27:278-83 10.1038/sj.jp.7211688

Renaud, 2006 inadequate or absent control group EXCLUDED: Case-series of pregnancies of newborns born from mothers with connective tissue diseases. Treatments noted, outcomes after HCQ reported but it is not possible to obtain outcomes for other treatments (control group). => Inadequate control group.

Renaud Arch Pediatr 2006; 13:1386-90 10.1016/j.arcped.2006.07.018

Izmirly, 2012 inadequate or absent control group EXCLUDED: in control group, HCQ could be never used or discontinued before 10 weeks of gestation. Considering the long half-life of HCQ, the control group could be exposed during the 2nd ou 3rd trimesters. No adequate control group.

Izmirly Circulation 2012; 126:76-82 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.111.089268

Hao, 2014 inadequate or absent control group EXCLUDED: Prednisone and HCQ were taken during the whole pregnancy.=> No adequate control group

Hao Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi 2014; 94:981-3

Klinger, 2001 inadequate or absent control group EXCLUDED: analysis of hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine, treatments with a too close chemical structure and adverse effects to be compared. No adequate control group.

Klinger Lancet 2001; 358:813-4 10.1016/S0140-6736(01)06004-4

Balevic, 2019 inadequate or absent control group EXCLUDED: all patients treated with hydroxychloroquine (at different dosages).=> No adequate control group.

Balevic J. Rheumatol. 2019; 46:57-63 10.3899/jrheum.180158

Mokbel, 2013 inadequate or absent control group EXCLUDED: All pregnancies received hydroxychloroquine. => No adequate control group.

Mokbel Egyptian Rheumatologist 2013; 35:133- 10.1016/j.ejr.2013.02.002

Motta, 2005 case report or case series EXCLUDED: All patients were treated with HCQ (40 patients affected by rheumatic diseases were treated with HCQ during pregnancy). No control group.

Motta J Perinatol 2005; 25:86-9 10.1038/sj.jp.7211208

Motta, 2002 case report or case series EXCLUDED: All patients were treated (35 infants born to 34 women who received hydroxy- chloroquine during pregnancy). No control group.

Motta Lancet 2002; 359:524-5 10.1016/S0140-6736(02)07643-2

Cheloufi, 2018 case report or case series EXCLUDED: All patients treated with hydroxychloroquine. No adequate control group.

Cheloufi Gynecol Obstet Fertil Senol 2018; 46:112-117 10.1016/j.gofs.2017.12.008

Chen, 2015 case report or case series EXCLUDED: case-series with data on treatments and outcomes in each patients but it can not be sure that all outcomes were looked for each pregnant women. Hydroxychloroquine in all except one patient.

Chen Lupus 2015; 24:147-54 10.1177/0961203314551812

Snarski, 2015 case report or case series EXCLUDED: no control group and no analysis according to treatments.

Snarski Bone Marrow Transplant. 2015; 50:216-20 10.1038/bmt.2014.248

Renault, 2009 case report or case series EXCLUDED: all children were exposed in utero to Hydroxychloroquine. No adequate control group.

Renault Acta Paediatr. 2009; 98:1500-3 10.1111/j.1651-2227.2009.01379.x

Alijotas-Reig, 2019 case report or case series EXCLUDED: all women treated with low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) plus aspirin (LDA) plus hydroxychloroquine (HCQ). No adequate control group.

Alijotas-Reig Semin. Arthritis Rheum. 2019; 49:314-318 10.1016/j.semarthrit.2019.02.006

Gayed, 2014 other reason EXCLUDED: exposure during pregnancy and/or breast feeding, without distinction between exposure during pregnancy or not. No certainty that infant was exposed in utero.

Gayed Rheumatology; 2014 Volume 53, Issue suppl_1, Page i55 https://doi.org/10.1093/rheumatology/keu095.004

Tedeschi, 2016 other reason EXCLUDED: Analysis of impact of illness during pregnancy on pregnancy outcomes. Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) six months before conception used as an adjustment variable in the second model.

Tedeschi Clin. Rheumatol. 2016; 35:1725-32 10.1007/s10067-016-3270-5

Bonaminio, 2006 not relevant exposure EXCLUDED: Analysis of tabacco, alcohol, illicit drugs, prednisolone, aspirin but not hydroxychloroquine (used in 1 pregnancy => outcome not precised).

Bonaminio Ann. Rheum. Dis. 2006; 65:246-8 10.1136/ard.2005.038844

Andrade, 2008 not in pregnancy EXCLUDED: analysis of treatments used before the pregnancy without information during the pregnancy (“these patients were not followed during their pregnancies. Thus we are unable to determine … continuity of treatment during pregnancy”).

Andrade Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology 2008; 26:268-.

Gao, 2019 not relevant study design EXCLUDED: inappropriate design.

Gao J Biomed Inform 2019; 100:103334 10.1016/j.jbi.2019.103334

Barsalou, 2018 not relevant outcome EXCLUDED: Analysis of 'Cutaneous neonatal lupus' a consequence of maternal disease => Study related to efficacy rather than safety. Not relevant outcome.

Barsalou Ann. Rheum. Dis. 2018; 77:1742-1749 10.1136/annrheumdis-2018-213718

Martinez-Sanchez, 2017 not relevant outcome EXCLUDED: Analysis of 'Fetal anti-Ro-related cardiac disease' a consequence of maternal disease => Study related to efficacy rather than safety. Not relevant outcome.

Martinez-Sanchez Immunol. Res. 2017; 65:487-494 10.1007/s12026-016-8888-5

Lisney, 2017 not relevant outcome EXCLUDED: no distinction between treatments for Fetal heart abnormalities, distinction between treatments made for continuous variables.

Lisney Ann. Rheum. Dis. 2017; 76:1476-1480 10.1136/annrheumdis-2016-210927

Hedlund, 2020 not relevant outcome EXCLUDED: continuous outcomes.

Hedlund RMD Open 2020; 6: 10.1136/rmdopen-2019-000989

Barsalou, 2017 not relevant outcome EXCLUDED: analysis of Neonatal lupus erythematosus (NLE) after exposure to antimalarials (Hydroxychloroquine or Chloroquine without distinction). => Study related to efficacy rather than safety. Not relevant outcome.

Barsalou Rheumatology (Oxford) 2017; 56:1552-1559 10.1093/rheumatology/kex191

Izmirly, 2010 not relevant outcome EXCLUDED: Analysis of 'cardiac manifestations of neonatal lupus' a consequence of maternal disease => Study related to efficacy rather than safety. Not relevant outcome.

Izmirly Ann. Rheum. Dis. 2010; 69:1827-30 10.1136/ard.2009.119263

Tunks, 2013 not relevant outcome EXCLUDED: Analysis of 'Congenital heart block' a consequence of maternal disease => Study related to efficacy rather than safety. Not relevant outcome.

Tunks Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 2013; 208:64.e1-7 10.1016/j.ajog.2012.09.020

Motta, 2007 not relevant outcome EXCLUDED: continuous variable (Lymphocyte subsets %) and in vitro immunoglobulin production. No distinction between treatments for outcomes.

Motta Am J Perinatol 2007; 24:441-7 10.1055/s-2007-986679

De Steenwinkel, 2014 not relevant outcome EXCLUDED: no analysis according to hydroxychloroquine exposure and continuous variable.

de Steenwinkel 2014; 66:533-7 10.1002/art.38281

Li, 2018 data not abstractable EXCLUDED: Article in Chinese. No quantitative results in Abstract (in English).

Li Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao 2018; 50:956-961

Buchanan, 1992 repeat population groups, duplicate reports (most recent study included) EXCLUDED: Fetal/neonatal outcomes analyzed as a whole, except for the 8 patients exposed to hydroxychoroquine (HCQ), but there is no control group. Moreover, these pregnancies are probably included in the more recent publication of Buchanan 1996.

Buchanan Am. J. Reprod. Immunol. 1992 ; 28:192-4 [1285876] https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0897.1992.tb00789.x

Le Thi Thuong, 2005 same data already obtained by other studies EXCLUDED: retrospective study of 16 HELLP syndromes in 15 pregnancies with APS (5 treated with HCQ), probably included in Costedoat-Chalumeau 2003, study in 133 pregnancies exposed to HCQ (same hospital, same authors, study period not reported).

Le Thi Thuong Ann. Rheum. Dis. 2005; 64:273-8 10.1136/ard.2003.019000

Schreiber, 2017 no specific data EXCLUDED: Randomized Controlled Trial protocol, without results.

Schreiber Semin. Thromb. Hemost. 2017; 43:562-571 10.1055/s-0037-1603359

Pasquier, 2019 no specific data EXCLUDED: Randomized Controlled Trial protocol, without results.

Pasquier BMJ Open 2019; 9:e025649 10.1136/bmjopen-2018-025649

Mekinian, 2018 no specific data EXCLUDED: Protocol of clinical trial, without results.

Mekinian Gynecol Obstet Fertil Senol 2018; 46:598-604

Chung, 2006 Studies without separate analysis of the considered drug/class from other drugs/class EXCLUDED: analysis of pregnancy outcomes according to illness (Systemic sclerosis (SSc) or Mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD)), without distinction between treatments.

Chung Lupus 2006; 15:595-9 10.1177/0961203306071915

Cavallasca, 2008 Studies without separate analysis of the considered drug/class from other drugs/class EXCLUDED: pregnancy outcomes analysed according maternal illness and some treatments (heparin, ASA, gammaglobulin) but not hydroxychloroquine.

Cavallasca Clin. Rheumatol. 2008; 27:41-6 10.1007/s10067-007-0649-3

Chen, 2019 Studies without separate analysis of the considered drug/class from other drugs/class EXCLUDED: Fetal outcomes in SLE patients with or without active disease, without distinction according to treatments during pregnancy (data on hypertensive disorder of pregnancy according to HCQ prior pregnancy).

Chen D Clin Rheumatol 2019 Dec;38(12):3501-3509. 10.1007/s10067-019-04696-x

Gerosa, 2007 Studies without separate analysis of the considered drug/class from other drugs/class EXCLUDED: analysis according to illness status, without detailed data according to treatments (only conclusion reported, data not shown).

Gerosa Rheumatology (Oxford) 2007; 46:1285-9 10.1093/rheumatology/kem073

Kim, 2008 Studies without separate analysis of the considered drug/class from other drugs/class EXCLUDED: analysis according to maternal illness (Lupus), without distinction between treatments.

Kim Yonsei Med. J. 2008; 49:515-20 10.3349/ymj.2008.49.4.515

Pastore, 2019 Studies without separate analysis of the considered drug/class from other drugs/class EXCLUDED: analysis according to maternal illness, without distinction between treatments.

Pastore Lupus 2019; 28:1417-1426 10.1177/0961203319877247

Polachek, 2019 Studies without separate analysis of the considered drug/class from other drugs/class EXCLUDED: analysis according to maternal illness, without distinction between treatments.

Polachek Clin. Rheumatol. 2019; 38:895-902 10.1007/s10067-018-4385-7

Madazli, 2010 Studies without separate analysis of the considered drug/class from other drugs/class EXCLUDED: analysis according to maternal illness, without distinction between treatments.

Madazli J Obstet Gynaecol 2010; 30:17-20 10.3109/01443610903315678

Saha, 2018 Studies without separate analysis of the considered drug/class from other drugs/class EXCLUDED: analysis of pregnancy outcomes according to illness, without data related to treatments.

Saha, M.M. Journal of SAFOG 2018; 10:45-. 10.5005/jp-journals-10006-1556

Cimaz, 2004 Studies without separate analysis of the considered drug/class from other drugs/class EXCLUDED: no exposure of interest in the exposed control. 4 exposures to hydroxychloroquine in the control group (n=14), without details on the outcomes after hydroxychloroquine exposure.

Cimaz Toxicol. Lett. 2004; 149:155-62 10.1016/j.toxlet.2003.12.030

Ambrosio, 2010 Studies without separate analysis of the considered drug/class from other drugs/class EXCLUDED: study on pregnancy outcomes in SLE patients, without distinction between treatments.

Ambrosio Clin Rev Allergy Immunol 2010; 38:77-81 10.1007/s12016-009-8139-9

Murray, 2020 Studies without separate analysis of the considered drug/class from other drugs/class EXCLUDED: analysis of pregnancy outcomes according to illness, without distinction between treatments.

Murray Ir J Med Sci 2020; 189:237-243 10.1007/s11845-019-02040-5

Petri, 1991 Studies without separate analysis of the considered drug/class from other drugs/class EXCLUDED: pregnancy outcomes reported as a whole, without distinction between treatments.

Petri Arthritis Rheum. 1991; 34:1538-45 10.1002/art.1780341210

Teh, 2009 Studies without separate analysis of the considered drug/class from other drugs/class EXCLUDED: Maternal and foetal outcomes analyzed for SLE patients, without distinction between treatments. Most of them also received hydroxychloroquine (75%). Only 25% patients were on azathioprine and 6.3% received mycophenolate mofetil.

Teh Lupus 2009; 18:278-82 10.1177/0961203308096661

Mekinian, 2013 Studies without separate analysis of the considered drug/class from other drugs/class EXCLUDED: analysis of babies born to mothers with antiphospholipid syndrome, without distinction between treatments.

Mekinian Ann. Rheum. Dis. 2013; 72:217-22 10.1136/annrheumdis-2011-201167

Mekinian, 2017 Studies without separate analysis of the considered drug/class from other drugs/class EXCLUDED: no analysis according treatment.

Mekinian Autoimmun Rev 2017; 16:730-734 10.1016/j.autrev.2017.05.006

Mok, 2005 Studies without separate analysis of the considered drug/class from other drugs/class EXCLUDED: for pregnancy outcomes: analysis as a whole, without distinction between treatments (impact of hydroxychloroquine studied for an outcome not linked to pregnancy).

Mok J. Rheumatol. 2005; 32:622-8

Abdwani, 2018 Studies without separate analysis of the considered drug/class from other drugs/class EXCLUDED: women with SLE analyzed as a whole, without distinction between treatments (Hydroxychloroquine, azathioprine or prednisolone).

Abdwani Oman Med J 2018; 33:15-21 10.5001/omj.2018.04

Molad, 2005 Studies without separate analysis of the considered drug/class from other drugs/class EXCLUDED: Adverse pregnancy outcomes studied according to medications taken during pregnancy, without distinction between treatments. Impact of hydroxychloroquine on postpartum disease studied for pregestational use.

Molad Lupus 2005; 14:145-51 10.1191/0961203305lu2072oa

Liu, 2017 Studies without separate analysis of the considered drug/class from other drugs/class EXCLUDED: analysis according to illness, without distinction between treatments.

Liu, E. Archives of Rheumatology 2017; 32:298-. 10.5606/ArchRheumatol.2017.6304

Carvalheiras, 2010 Studies without separate analysis of the considered drug/class from other drugs/class EXCLUDED: analysis of outcomes in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus pregnancies, without distinction between treatments.

Carvalheiras Clin Rev Allergy Immunol 2010; 38:302-6 10.1007/s12016-009-8161-y

Wu, 2018 Studies without separate analysis of the considered drug/class from other drugs/class EXCLUDED: analysis according to illness, without distinction between treatments.

Wu BMJ Open 2018; 8:e020909 10.1136/bmjopen-2017-020909

Costedoat-Chalumeau, 2004 Studies without separate analysis of the considered drug/class from other drugs/class EXCLUDED: analysis performed according to the illness and the 2 groups (Anti-SSA–positive study group and Anti-SSA–negative control group) could be treated with hydroxychloroquine. No separate analysis according treatment.

Costedoat-Chalumeau Arthritis Rheum. 2004; 50:3187-94 10.1002/art.20554

Eudy, 2018 Studies without separate analysis of the considered drug/class from other drugs/class EXCLUDED: Analysis performed according to illness. Medications reported but no distinct analysis according to medications (co-exposure with different treatments). => No adequate control group (unexposed to hydroxychloroquine).

Eudy Lupus 2018; 27:351-356 10.1177/0961203317720525

Orquevaux, 2017 Studies without separate analysis of the considered drug/class from other drugs/class EXCLUDED: no distinction between treatments for pregnancy outcomes.

Orquevaux J. Rheumatol. 2017; 44:613-618 10.3899/jrheum.160462

Reiner, 2012 Studies without separate analysis of the considered drug/class from other drugs/class

Reiner Rev Med Interne 2012; 33:206-8 10.1016/j.revmed.2012.01.006

Carmona, 2005 Studies without separate analysis of the considered drug/class from other drugs/class EXCLUDED: Analysis according to illness statut without distinct analysis between treatments ("Hydroxycloroquine: 15 patients in groups 1 and 2, and nine patients in group 3")

Carmona Am. J. Reprod. Immunol. 2005; 53:182-8 10.1111/j.1600-0897.2005.00263.x

Huong, 2001 Studies without separate analysis of the considered drug/class from other drugs/class EXCLUDED: analysis of pregnancy in lupus nephritis patients, without analysis according treatment.

Huong Ann. Rheum. Dis. 2001; 60:599-604 10.1136/ard.60.6.599

Chen 2015b, 2015 Studies without separate analysis of the considered drug/class from other drugs/class EXCLUDED: analysis according to illness statuts without distinction between treatments (HCP exposure in the 3 studied groups).

Chen Int J Environ Res Public Health 2015; 12:9876-88 10.3390/ijerph120809876

Jakobsen, 2015 Studies without separate analysis of the considered drug/class from other drugs/class EXCLUDED: analysis according illness activity, without distinction between treatments.

Jakobsen Scand. J. Rheumatol. 2015; 44:377-84 10.3109/03009742.2015.1013982

Levy, 2018 Studies without separate analysis of the considered drug/class from other drugs/class EXCLUDED: analysis of systemic lupus erythematosus patients (pregnant or not), without distinction between treatments.

Levy Rheumatol. Int. 2018; 38:1841-1846 10.1007/s00296-018-4147-5

Madazli, 2014 Studies without separate analysis of the considered drug/class from other drugs/class EXCLUDED: analysis according to illness without distinct analysis according to treatments.

Madazli Arch. Gynecol. Obstet. 2014; 289:49-53 10.1007/s00404-013-2935-4

Yelnik, 2016 Studies without separate analysis of the considered drug/class from other drugs/class EXCLUDED: analysis according to illness statut without distinction between treatments.

Yelnik 2016; 68:1964-9 10.1002/art.39668

Vinet, 2015 Studies without separate analysis of the considered drug/class from other drugs/class EXCLUDED: analysis according to illness without distinction between treatments.

Vinet 2015; 67:3201-8 10.1002/art.39320

Nalli, 2017 Studies without separate analysis of the considered drug/class from other drugs/class EXCLUDED: analysis according to illness without distinction between treatments.

Nalli Lupus 2017; 26:552-558 10.1177/0961203317694960

Mazzucchelli, 2015 Studies without separate analysis of the considered drug/class from other drugs/class EXCLUDED: analysis according to illness, without distinction between treatments.

Mazzucchelli BMC Pediatr 2015; 15:217 10.1186/s12887-015-0532-3

Alijotas-Reig, 2015 Studies without separate analysis of the considered drug/class from other drugs/class EXCLUDED: Analysis of obstetric and maternal outcomes in a cohort of pregnant women with Antiphospholipid Syndrome, without separate analysis between treatments.

Alijotas-Reig Autoimmun Rev 2015; 14:387-95 10.1016/j.autrev.2014.12.010

Lima, 1995 Studies without separate analysis of the considered drug/class from other drugs/class EXCLUDED: analysis of systemic lupus erythematosus pregnant patients, without distinction between treatments.

Lima Semin. Arthritis Rheum. 1995; 25:184-92 10.1016/s0049-0172(95)80030-1

Luo, 2015 Studies without separate analysis of the considered drug/class from other drugs/class EXCLUDED: analysis of outcomes of anti-SSA/Ro-positive pregnant women, without distinction between treatments.

Luo Clin. Rheumatol. 2015; 34:1721-8 10.1007/s10067-015-3050-7

Mekinian, 2015 Studies without separate analysis of the considered drug/class from other drugs/class EXCLUDED: no separate analysis according to treatments.

Mekinian Autoimmunity 2015; 48:40-5 10.3109/08916934.2014.939267

Clowse, 2013 Studies without separate analysis of the considered drug/class from other drugs/class EXCLUDED: Analysis performed according to illness. Medications reported but no distinct analysis according to medications (co-exposure with different treatments). => No adequate control group (unexposed to hydroxychloroquine).

Clowse Ann. Rheum. Dis. 2013; 72:1536-9 10.1136/annrheumdis-2012-202449

Kroese, 2017 Studies without separate analysis of the considered drug/class from other drugs/class EXCLUDED: analysis according to illness without distinct analysis according to treatments.

Kroese J Immunol Res 2017; 2017:8245879 10.1155/2017/8245879

de Man, 2009 Studies without separate analysis of the considered drug/class from other drugs/class EXCLUDED: hydroxychloroquine used in 2 patients but no data of the outcomes of these pregnancies. Analysis performed for all pregnancies (whatever the treatments) and for prednisone.

de Man Arthritis Rheum. 2009; 60:3196-206 10.1002/art.24914

Eudy, 2018 Studies without separate analysis of the considered drug/class from other drugs/class EXCLUDED: analysis of pregnancy outcomes in women with RA versus healthy controls, without distinction between treatments.

Eudy Clin. Rheumatol. 2018; 37:789-794 10.1007/s10067-017-3939-4

Skorpen, 2018 Studies without separate analysis of the considered drug/class from other drugs/class EXCLUDED: Analysis of the impact of prednisolone but not hydroxychloroquine ('there were no significant differences in the use of hydroxychloroquine or azathioprine between the groups in any of the trimesters').

Skorpen Ann. Rheum. Dis. 2018; 77:264-269 10.1136/annrheumdis-2017-211641

Zuppa, 2017 Studies without separate analysis of the considered drug/class from other drugs/class EXCLUDED: analysis of infants born of mothers with anti-SSA/Ro Ab, without distinction between treatments.

Zuppa Autoimmun Rev 2017; 16:427-432 10.1016/j.autrev.2017.02.010

Bramham, 2011 Studies without separate analysis of the considered drug/class from other drugs/class EXCLUDED: Fetal and neonatal outcome of women with SLE with and without lupus nephritis, without distinction between treatments.

Bramham J. Rheumatol. 2011; 38:1906-13 10.3899/jrheum.100997

Czeizel, 2004 Studies without separate analysis of the considered drug/class from other drugs/class EXCLUDED: analysis of medications as a whole, without distinction between treatments.

Czeizel Lupus 2004; 13:740-5 10.1191/0961203303lu1095oa

Mills, 2020 Studies without separate analysis of the considered drug/class from other drugs/class EXCLUDED: developmental milestone outcomes analysis before or after maternal AIRD diagnosis. No detailed analysis according to the medications.

Mills J. Rheumatol. 2020; 47:149-154 10.3899/jrheum.181067

Karimzadeh, 2019 Studies without separate analysis of the considered drug/class from other drugs/class EXCLUDED: analysis according to illness statut, without distinction between treatments.

Karimzadeh Curr Rheumatol Rev 2019; 15:321-328 10.2174/1573397115666190125162248

Castellino, 2011 Studies without separate analysis of the considered drug/class from other drugs/class EXCLUDED: Analysis of pregnancy outcomes according to undifferentiated connective tissue disease (UCTD), without distinction between treatments.

Castellino Lupus 2011; 20:1305-11 10.1177/0961203311409610

Georgiou, 2000 Studies without separate analysis of the considered drug/class from other drugs/class EXCLUDED: analysis according to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) status, without distinction between treatments.

Georgiou Rheumatology (Oxford) 2000; 39:1014-9 10.1093/rheumatology/39.9.1014

Song, 2016 Studies without separate analysis of the considered drug/class from other drugs/class EXCLUDED: analysis according to illness status without distinction between treatments.

Song Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao 2016; 36:1732-1736

Zusman, 2019 pattern of exposure EXCLUDED: pattern of exposure during pregnancy, without safety data on fetal/neonatal/maternal outcomes.

Zusman Lupus 2019; 28:1205-1213 10.1177/0961203319863111

Viktil (women), 2009 pattern of exposure EXCLUDED: Pattern of exposure without data on fetal/maternal/neonatal safety outcomes.

Viktil Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 2009; 18:737-42 10.1002/pds.1775

Palmsten, 2017 pattern of exposure EXCLUDED: Pattern of exposure without safety data on fetal/maternal/neonatal safety outcomes.

Palmsten Rheumatology (Oxford) 2017; 56:561-569 10.1093/rheumatology/kew448