Hydroxychloroquine

Table   Graphic  
  individual studies
OutcomeTE95% CIn casesn exposedkPub. bias All congenital malformations (majors, minors, majors and minors, or unspecified) Costedoat-Chalumeau, 2003 Vroom (controls exposed to sulfasalazine), 2009 Colvin, 2010 Diav-Citrin, 2013 Cooper (controls unexposed, sick), 2014 Leroux, 2015 Ye, 2017 Howren, 2020 81.58[0.89; 2.81]5,074614not evaluable Major congenital malformations Costedoat-Chalumeau, 2003 Colvin, 2010 Diav-Citrin, 2013 Cooper (controls unexposed, sick), 2014 41.82[0.83; 4.00]5,041434not evaluable Congenital heart defects Vroom (controls exposed to sulfasalazine), 2009 Cooper (controls unexposed, sick), 2014 22.54[0.60; 10.83]12220not evaluable Aortic valve atresia/stenosis Cooper (controls unexposed, sick), 2014 10.88[0.02; 44.65]-194not evaluable Cleft palate Cooper (controls unexposed, sick), 2014 10.29[0.01; 7.22]1194not evaluable Club foot / Talipes equinovarus Cooper (controls unexposed, sick), 2014 12.66[0.11; 65.66]1194not evaluable Congenital hydronephrosis Cooper (controls unexposed, sick), 2014 10.29[0.01; 7.22]1194not evaluable Diaphragmatic hernia Cooper (controls unexposed, sick), 2014 10.88[0.02; 44.65]-194not evaluable Digestive system anomalies Cooper (controls unexposed, sick), 2014 10.88[0.05; 14.19]2194not evaluable Genital anomalies Cooper (controls unexposed, sick), 2014 111.82[0.66; 211.42]6194not evaluable Hydrocephalus Cooper (controls unexposed, sick), 2014 12.66[0.11; 65.66]1194not evaluable Hypospadias Cooper (controls unexposed, sick), 2014 18.10[0.43; 151.51]4194not evaluable Indeterminate sex Cooper (controls unexposed, sick), 2014 12.66[0.11; 65.66]1194not evaluable Limb defects Cooper (controls unexposed, sick), 2014 12.66[0.11; 65.66]1194not evaluable Nervous system anomalies Cooper (controls unexposed, sick), 2014 12.66[0.11; 65.66]1194not evaluable Oro-facial clefts Cooper (controls unexposed, sick), 2014 10.29[0.01; 7.22]1194not evaluable Polydactyly Cooper (controls unexposed, sick), 2014 10.88[0.02; 44.65]-194not evaluable Pulmonary artery stenosis Cooper (controls unexposed, sick), 2014 12.66[0.11; 65.66]1194not evaluable Urinary malformations Cooper (controls unexposed, sick), 2014 10.17[0.01; 3.65]2194not evaluable Ventricular septal defect Cooper (controls unexposed, sick), 2014 14.45[0.21; 93.38]2194not evaluable Eye defects Vroom (controls exposed to sulfasalazine), 2009 10.72[0.04; 14.37]326not evaluable Preterm (< 37 weeks) Buchanan, 1996 Khamashta, 1996 Costedoat-Chalumeau, 2003 Tincani, 2005 Chakravarty, 2005 Clowse, 2006 Vroom (controls unexposed, disease free), 2009 Al Arfaj, 2010 Diav-Citrin, 2013 Cooper (controls unexposed, sick), 2014 Leroux, 2015 Sciascia, 2016 Ye, 2017 Mollerach, 2019 Seo, 2019 Do, 2020 161.04[0.71; 1.52]15,848976low Small for gestational age (weight) Khamashta, 1996 Buchanan, 1996 Clowse, 2006 Al Arfaj, 2010 Leroux, 2015 Moroni, 2016 Sciascia, 2016 Ye, 2017 Seo, 2019 Mollerach, 2019 Do, 2020 Howren, 2020 120.76[0.49; 1.20]1,152591low Very preterm (28 to 32 weeks) Leroux, 2015 Mekinian, 2015 Seo, 2019 30.45[0.20; 1.01]29146not evaluable Extremely preterm (< 28 weeks) Clowse, 2006 11.32[0.48; 3.61]2149not evaluable Low birth weight (< 2500g) Leroux, 2015 Ye, 2017 20.39[0.22; 0.69]73150not evaluable Very low birth weight (< 1500g) Leroux, 2015 10.08[0.00; 1.33]1138not evaluable Preeclampsia Leroux, 2015 Sciascia, 2016 Ye, 2017 Seo, 2019 Mollerach, 2019 50.52[0.18; 1.50]67295not evaluable Caesarean Sciascia, 2016 Seo, 2019 20.57[0.33; 1.00]116104not evaluable Gestational diabete Ye, 2017 Seo, 2019 Mollerach, 2019 31.17[0.57; 2.37]35220not evaluable Abruptio placentae Sciascia, 2016 Seo, 2019 21.14[0.08; 16.11]8114not evaluable Oligohydramnios / Polyhydramnios Leroux, 2015 Seo, 2019 20.54[0.15; 1.96]15118not evaluable Assisted deliveries (forceps, vacuum, ...) 0----- Maternal consequences (as a whole) Ruffatti, 2018 10.32[0.14; 0.72]3594not evaluable Maternal death Leroux, 2015 11.89[0.04; 96.97]-41not evaluable Maternal infections Leroux, 2015 12.67[0.57; 12.54]741not evaluable Maternal liver disorder / failure during pregnancy Do, 2020 11.44[0.03; 73.63]-53not evaluable Eye deficiency / Visual abnormality Buchanan, 1996 Levy, 2001 Costedoat-Chalumeau, 2003 Clowse, 2006 41.19[0.16; 8.63]-205not evaluable Neonatal disorders (as a whole) Cooper (controls unexposed, sick), 2014 Mekinian, 2015 Mollerach, 2019 31.44[0.63; 3.25]26241not evaluable Hearing loss / Auditory deficit Levy, 2001 Costedoat-Chalumeau, 2003 Clowse, 2006 31.12[0.11; 11.06]-174not evaluable Neonatal death Buchanan, 1996 Levy, 2001 Al Arfaj, 2010 31.07[0.20; 5.60]6110not evaluable Fetal distress Buchanan, 1996 Khamashta, 1996 20.83[0.42; 1.66]5262not evaluable Low Apgar score (< 7) (at 5 min) Leroux, 2015 Seo, 2019 20.74[0.21; 2.64]12110not evaluable Infant growth abnormalities Costedoat-Chalumeau, 2003 10.50[0.01; 25.63]-117not evaluable Neonatal immune dysfunction 0----- Neonatal medical care Do, 2020 10.69[0.32; 1.50]4053not evaluable Very low Apgar score (< 5) (at 1 min) Seo, 2019 10.89[0.12; 6.48]472not evaluable0.0100.01.0