Hydroxychloroquine

Table   Graphic     exposition period:

Congenital malformations
Adverse outcome VerdictOR 95%CI I2k No. casesNo. exposedpublication bias
All congenital malformations (majors, minors, majors and minors, or unspecified)1.58 [0.89, 2.81]30%8 studies5,074614not evaluable
Major congenital malformations1.82 [0.83, 4.00]44%4 studies5,041434not evaluable
Congenital heart defects2.54 [0.60, 10.83]0%2 studies12220not evaluable
Aortic valve atresia/stenosis0.88 [0.02, 44.65]-1 study194not evaluable
Cleft palate0.29 [0.01, 7.22]-1 study1194not evaluable
Club foot / Talipes equinovarus2.66 [0.11, 65.66]-1 study1194not evaluable
Congenital hydronephrosis0.29 [0.01, 7.22]-1 study1194not evaluable
Diaphragmatic hernia0.88 [0.02, 44.65]-1 study194not evaluable
Digestive system anomalies0.88 [0.05, 14.19]-1 study2194not evaluable
Genital anomalies11.82 [0.66, 211.42]-1 study6194not evaluable
Hydrocephalus2.66 [0.11, 65.66]-1 study1194not evaluable
Hypospadias8.10 [0.43, 151.51]-1 study4194not evaluable
Indeterminate sex2.66 [0.11, 65.66]-1 study1194not evaluable
Limb defects2.66 [0.11, 65.66]-1 study1194not evaluable
Nervous system anomalies2.66 [0.11, 65.66]-1 study1194not evaluable
Oro-facial clefts0.29 [0.01, 7.22]-1 study1194not evaluable
Polydactyly0.88 [0.02, 44.65]-1 study194not evaluable
Pulmonary artery stenosis2.66 [0.11, 65.66]-1 study1194not evaluable
Urinary malformations0.17 [0.01, 3.65]-1 study2194not evaluable
Ventricular septal defect4.45 [0.21, 93.38]-1 study2194not evaluable
Eye defects0.72 [0.04, 14.37]-1 study326not evaluable

Growth parameters and prematurity
Adverse outcome VerdictOR 95%CI I2k No. casesNo. exposedpublication bias
Preterm (< 37 weeks)1.04 [0.71, 1.52]69%16 studies15,848976low
Small for gestational age (weight)0.76 [0.49, 1.20]57%12 studies1,152591low
Very preterm (28 to 32 weeks)0.45 [0.20, 1.01]0%3 studies29146not evaluable
Extremely preterm (< 28 weeks)1.32 [0.48, 3.61]-1 study2149not evaluable
Low birth weight (< 2500g)0.39 [0.22, 0.69]0%2 studies73150not evaluable
Very low birth weight (< 1500g)0.08 [0.00, 1.33]-1 study1138not evaluable

Maternal consequences
Adverse outcome VerdictOR 95%CI I2k No. casesNo. exposedpublication bias
Preeclampsia0.52 [0.18, 1.50]58%5 studies67295not evaluable
Caesarean0.57 [0.33, 1.00]0%2 studies116104not evaluable
Gestational diabete1.17 [0.57, 2.37]0%3 studies35220not evaluable
Abruptio placentae1.14 [0.08, 16.11]51%2 studies8114not evaluable
Oligohydramnios / Polyhydramnios0.54 [0.15, 1.96]0%2 studies15118not evaluable
Assisted deliveries (forceps, vacuum, ...)--0 study
Maternal consequences (as a whole)0.32 [0.14, 0.72]-1 study3594not evaluable
Maternal death1.89 [0.04, 96.97]-1 study41not evaluable
Maternal infections2.67 [0.57, 12.54]-1 study741not evaluable
Maternal liver disorder / failure during pregnancy1.44 [0.03, 73.63]-1 study53not evaluable

Neonatal disorders
Adverse outcome VerdictOR 95%CI I2k No. casesNo. exposedpublication bias
Eye deficiency / Visual abnormality1.19 [0.16, 8.63]0%4 studies205not evaluable
Neonatal disorders (as a whole)1.44 [0.63, 3.25]0%3 studies26241not evaluable
Hearing loss / Auditory deficit1.12 [0.11, 11.06]0%3 studies174not evaluable
Neonatal death1.07 [0.20, 5.60]0%3 studies6110not evaluable
Fetal distress0.83 [0.42, 1.66]0%2 studies5262not evaluable
Low Apgar score (< 7) (at 5 min)0.74 [0.21, 2.64]0%2 studies12110not evaluable
Infant growth abnormalities0.50 [0.01, 25.63]-1 study117not evaluable
Neonatal immune dysfunction--0 study
Neonatal medical care0.69 [0.32, 1.50]-1 study4053not evaluable
Very low Apgar score (< 5) (at 1 min)0.89 [0.12, 6.48]-1 study472not evaluable

Long term consequences
Adverse outcome VerdictOR 95%CI I2k No. casesNo. exposedpublication bias

Intrauterine deaths
Adverse outcome VerdictOR 95%CI I2k No. casesNo. exposedpublication bias
Late intrauterine deaths (> 22 weeks)0.82 [0.48, 1.39]0%12 studies76941low
Early intrauterine death (< 22 weeks)1.11 [0.70, 1.76]50%12 studies265801low
Intrauterine deaths (as a whole)0.63 [0.41, 0.97]38%9 studies631607not evaluable
Elective termination of pregnancy2.36 [0.87, 6.44]0%2 studies16156not evaluable
Therapeutic terminations of pregnancy0.10 [0.00, 2.15]-1 study2133not evaluable

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