Macrolides

Table   Graphic     exposition period:

Congenital malformations
Adverse outcome OR 95%CII2k No. casesNo. exposedpublication biasROB
All congenital malformations (majors, minors, majors and minors, or unspecified)1.18 [1.06, 1.31]46%16 studies124,82026,098low ROB
Congenital heart defects1.20 [1.00, 1.43]61%14 studies60,63924,390low ROB
Major congenital malformations1.19 [1.03, 1.37]57%12 studies120,61922,659low ROB
Cardiac septal defects1.04 [0.85, 1.27]29%5 studies5,58419,854not evaluable ROB
Limb defects1.06 [0.94, 1.19]0%5 studies28,56217,053not evaluable ROB
Genital anomalies0.96 [0.75, 1.23]20%4 studies13,90817,633not evaluable ROB
Nervous system anomalies1.14 [0.88, 1.47]1%5 studies12,62919,092not evaluable ROB
Cleft palate1.21 [0.84, 1.76]0%4 studies4,6152,508not evaluable ROB
Digestive system anomalies0.99 [0.62, 1.58]53%4 studies1,30318,983not evaluable ROB
Hypospadias0.67 [0.41, 1.10]59%3 studies11,785280not evaluable ROB
Cerebral palsy1.34 [1.00, 1.80]19%4 studies83715,591not evaluable ROB
Cleft lip with or without cleft palate1.02 [0.56, 1.85]36%4 studies7,079186not evaluable ROB
Club foot / Talipes equinovarus1.17 [0.81, 1.71]0%4 studies6,949135not evaluable ROB
Hydrocephaly1.52 [0.89, 2.60]0%2 studies2,792166not evaluable ROB
Neural Tube Defects1.37 [0.92, 2.02]0%4 studies6,116436not evaluable ROB
Oro-facial clefts1.04 [0.81, 1.33]0%4 studies11,62414,693not evaluable ROB
Urinary malformations1.15 [0.89, 1.49]0%3 studies1,18617,521not evaluable ROB
Polydactyly1.03 [0.42, 2.56]11%2 studies6,30489not evaluable ROB
Respiratory system anomalies1.35 [0.94, 1.92]0%2 studies66615,351not evaluable ROB
Atrioventricular septal defect2.70 [1.52, 4.81]0%2 studies1,155163not evaluable ROB
Craniosynostosis1.09 [0.71, 1.67]0%2 studies1,1632,417not evaluable ROB
Ear, face and neck anomalies0.39 [0.05, 2.99]53%2 studies1,88813,091not evaluable ROB
Microcephaly / Small head circumference for gestational age0.77 [0.55, 1.08]0%2 studies1,28774not evaluable ROB
Atresia or stenosis of other parts of small intestine1.48 [0.65, 3.36]0%2 studies583156not evaluable ROB
Atrial septal defect1.02 [0.74, 1.41]0%2 studies15,772206not evaluable ROB
Coarctation of aorta0.99 [0.55, 1.78]0%2 studies2,265163not evaluable ROB
Gastroschisis0.83 [0.41, 1.68]0%2 studies1,807158not evaluable ROB
Hypoplastic left heart (HLH/HLHS)1.15 [0.23, 5.77]68%2 studies1,29713,091not evaluable ROB
Oesophageal atresia with or without tracheo-oesophageal fistula1.41 [0.80, 2.49]0%2 studies1,725164not evaluable ROB
Tetralogy of Fallot0.80 [0.40, 1.57]0%2 studies2,068160not evaluable ROB
Ventricular septal defect1.10 [0.75, 1.61]42%2 studies22,596236not evaluable ROB
Anophthalmos/micropthalmos5.17 [1.23, 21.72]-1 study14774not evaluable ROB
20 non statistically significant endpoints reported in only one study

Growth parameters and prematurity
Adverse outcome OR 95%CII2k No. casesNo. exposedpublication biasROB
Preterm (< 37 weeks)0.76 [0.56, 1.04]84%15 studies15,63627,778low ROB
Low birth weight (< 2500g)0.79 [0.68, 0.93]11%13 studies9,6205,049low ROB
Small for gestational age (weight)1.07 [0.94, 1.21]0%2 studies8,3933,654not evaluable ROB
Very low birth weight (< 1500g)1.03 [0.49, 2.15]0%2 studies3997not evaluable ROB
Very preterm (28 to 32 weeks)0.48 [0.26, 0.89]-1 study44440not evaluable ROB
1 non statistically significant endpoints reported in only one study

Maternal consequences
Adverse outcome OR 95%CII2k No. casesNo. exposedpublication biasROB
Caesarean1.14 [0.80, 1.61]0%5 studies225309not evaluable ROB
Postpartum hemorrhage--0 study
5 non statistically significant endpoints reported in only one study

Neonatal disorders
Adverse outcome OR 95%CII2k No. casesNo. exposedpublication biasROB
Neonatal death (< 28 days of life)0.82 [0.55, 1.22]0%9 studies993,807not evaluable ROB
Low Apgar score (< 7) (at 5 min)0.73 [0.40, 1.34]0%5 studies52252not evaluable ROB
Fetal distress0.87 [0.23, 3.31]22%2 studies27135not evaluable ROB
Necrotizing enterocolitis1.02 [0.40, 2.59]0%2 studies9745not evaluable ROB
Neonatal infections0.89 [0.59, 1.34]0%2 studies921,406not evaluable ROB
Very low Apgar score (< 5) (at 1 min)0.58 [0.17, 2.00]0%2 studies1197not evaluable ROB
3 non statistically significant endpoints reported in only one study

Long term consequences
Adverse outcome OR 95%CII2k No. casesNo. exposedpublication biasROB
Infant asthma1.24 [0.96, 1.61]82%4 studies3,849542not evaluable ROB
2 non statistically significant endpoints reported in only one study

Intrauterine deaths
Adverse outcome OR 95%CII2k No. casesNo. exposedpublication biasROB
Early intrauterine death (< 22 weeks)1.26 [0.99, 1.60]73%12 studies8,96011,707low ROB
Late intrauterine deaths (> 22 weeks)0.74 [0.27, 2.02]77%8 studies12824,268not evaluable ROB
Elective/induced termination of pregnancy3.12 [1.53, 6.36]22%4 studies92822not evaluable ROB
Perinatal death0.83 [0.51, 1.34]1%3 studies1041,111not evaluable ROB
Intrauterine deaths (as a whole or unspecified)0.09 [0.05, 0.16]94%2 studies143,9387,258not evaluable ROB
1 non statistically significant endpoints reported in only one study

Neuro-developmental disorders
Adverse outcome OR 95%CII2k No. casesNo. exposedpublication biasROB
TEST - Diagnostic/Risk of ADHD (Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder)1.02 [0.84, 1.25]0%2 studies7973,781not evaluable ROB
Diagnostic of ASD (Autism spectrum disorder)