Carbamazepine (Epilepsy)

Table   Graphic  
individual studies
OutcomeTE95% CIn casesn exposedkPub. bias Congenital malformations All congenital malformations (majors, minors, majors and minors, or unspecified) Robert (Carbamazepine), 1986 D'Souza (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, sick), 1991 Kaneko (Carbamazepine), 1999 Canger (Carbamazepine), 1999 Samrén (Carbamazepine), 1999 Hvas (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, sick), 2000 Diav-Citrin (Carbamazepine), 2001 Dean (Carbamazepine), 2002 Kaaja (Carbamazepine), 2003 Endo (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, sick), 2004 Artama (Carbamazepine), 2005 Viinikainen (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, sick) a, 2006 Mawer (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, sick), 2010 Charlton (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, sick), 2011 Bànhidy (Carbamazepine), 2011 Hernández-Díaz (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, disease free), 2012 Arteaga-Vázquez (Carbamazepine), 2012 Cassina (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, disease free), 2013 Veiby (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, sick), 2014 Campbell (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, sick), 2014 Vanya (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, sick), 2015 Tomson (Carbamazepine), 2018 Huber-Mollema (Carbamazepine), 2019 Vajda (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, sick), 2019 Meador (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, sick), 2020 Aydin (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, sick), 2020 Thomas (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, sick), 2021 Hosny (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, sick), 2021 Mari (Carbamazepine), 2022 291.62[1.34; 1.95]7818,918low Major congenital malformations Robert (Carbamazepine), 1986 Canger (Carbamazepine), 1999 Samrén (Carbamazepine), 1999 Hvas (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, sick), 2000 Diav-Citrin (Carbamazepine), 2001 Dean (Carbamazepine), 2002 Kaaja (Carbamazepine), 2003 Viinikainen (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, sick) a, 2006 Mawer (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, sick), 2010 Bànhidy (Carbamazepine), 2011 Charlton (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, sick), 2011 Hernández-Díaz (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, disease free), 2012 Cassina (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, disease free), 2013 Veiby (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, sick), 2014 Campbell (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, sick), 2014 Vanya (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, sick), 2015 Tomson (Carbamazepine), 2018 Huber-Mollema (Carbamazepine), 2019 Vajda (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, sick), 2019 Meador (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, sick), 2020 Thomas (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, sick), 2021 Hosny (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, sick), 2021 Mari (Carbamazepine), 2022 231.65[1.38; 1.98]6547,897low Congenital heart defects D'Souza (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, sick), 1991 Van der Pol (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, sick), 1991 Canger (Carbamazepine), 1999 Artama (Carbamazepine), 2005 Mawer (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, sick), 2010 Bànhidy (Carbamazepine), 2011 Hernández-Díaz (Carbamazepine) (Controls exposed to Lamotrigine, sick), 2012 Vajda (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, sick), 2013 Campbell (Carbamazepine) (Controls exposed to Lamotrigine, sick), 2014 Tomson (Carbamazepine), 2018 Thomas (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, sick), 2021 111.29[0.81; 2.05]1136,510low Minor congenital malformations Robert (Carbamazepine), 1986 Van der Pol (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, sick), 1991 Battino (Carbamazepine), 1992 Wide (Carbamazepine), 2000 Dean (Carbamazepine), 2002 Mari (Carbamazepine), 2022 62.28[0.84; 6.14]75211not evaluable Neural Tube Defects Canger (Carbamazepine), 1999 Mawer (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, sick), 2010 Bànhidy (Carbamazepine), 2011 Hernández-Díaz (Carbamazepine) (Controls exposed to Lamotrigine, sick), 2012 Vajda (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, sick), 2013 Campbell (Carbamazepine) (Controls exposed to Lamotrigine, sick), 2014 Tomson (Carbamazepine), 2018 72.40[1.00; 5.77]245,199not evaluable Spina bifida Van der Pol (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, sick), 1991 Artama (Carbamazepine), 2005 Viinikainen (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, sick) a, 2006 Jentink (Carbamazepine), 2010 Charlton (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, sick), 2011 Veiby (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, sick), 2014 62.04[1.05; 3.97]61,812serious Hypospadias D'Souza (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, sick), 1991 Van der Pol (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, sick), 1991 Jentink (Carbamazepine), 2010 Bànhidy (Carbamazepine), 2011 Hernández-Díaz (Carbamazepine) (Controls exposed to Lamotrigine, sick), 2012 Campbell (Carbamazepine) (Controls exposed to Lamotrigine, sick), 2014 Tomson (Carbamazepine), 2018 70.97[0.58; 1.64]364,672not evaluable Limb defects Artama (Carbamazepine), 2005 Mawer (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, sick), 2010 Vajda (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, sick), 2013 Campbell (Carbamazepine) (Controls exposed to Lamotrigine, sick), 2014 Thomas (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, sick), 2021 51.41[0.70; 2.83]323,379not evaluable Microcephaly / Small head circumference for gestational age Battino (Carbamazepine), 1999 Díaz-Romero (Carbamazepine), 1999 Holmes (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, sick), 2001 Kini (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, sick), 2006 Pennell (Carbamazepine), 2012 51.02[0.43; 2.44]40373not evaluable Polydactyly D'Souza (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, sick), 1991 Viinikainen (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, sick) a, 2006 Bànhidy (Carbamazepine), 2011 Tomson (Carbamazepine), 2018 42.36[0.38; 14.49]62,042not evaluable Cleft lip with or without cleft palate Artama (Carbamazepine), 2005 Viinikainen (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, sick) a, 2006 Jentink (Carbamazepine), 2010 Vajda (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, sick), 2013 40.59[0.09; 4.07]31,238not evaluable Hip dislocation and/or dysplasia D'Souza (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, sick), 1991 Van der Pol (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, sick), 1991 22.46[0.14; 43.93]-14not evaluable Urinary malformations Artama (Carbamazepine), 2005 Tomson (Carbamazepine), 2018 Thomas (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, sick), 2021 31.19[0.42; 3.39]333,252not evaluable Club foot / Talipes equinovarus Van der Pol (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, sick), 1991 Bànhidy (Carbamazepine), 2011 23.54[0.30; 42.29]223not evaluable Digestive system anomalies Campbell (Carbamazepine) (Controls exposed to Lamotrigine, sick), 2014 Thomas (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, sick), 2021 20.69[0.24; 1.99]142,147not evaluable Oro-facial clefts Hernández-Díaz (Carbamazepine) (Controls exposed to Lamotrigine, sick), 2012 Campbell (Carbamazepine) (Controls exposed to Lamotrigine, sick), 2014 Tomson (Carbamazepine), 2018 31.27[0.55; 2.93]234,647not evaluable Ano-rectal atresia and stenosis Van der Pol (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, sick), 1991 10.65[0.02; 17.40]111not evaluable Congenital cataract Van der Pol (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, sick), 1991 10.65[0.02; 17.40]111not evaluable Craniosynostosis D'Souza (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, sick), 1991 13.00[0.05; 194.76]-3not evaluable Down syndrom / Trisomy 21 D'Souza (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, sick), 1991 13.00[0.05; 194.76]-3not evaluable Eye defects Dean (Carbamazepine), 2002 Artama (Carbamazepine), 2005 20.49[0.16; 1.52]13874not evaluable Nervous system anomalies Thomas (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, sick), 2021 19.13[0.51; 162.59]6490not evaluable Chromosomal abnormalities Artama (Carbamazepine), 2005 18.20[0.42; 158.93]3805not evaluable Cleft palate Viinikainen (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, sick) a, 2006 12.19[0.09; 54.89]172not evaluable Diaphragmatic hernia Jentink (Carbamazepine), 2010 10.90[0.11; 7.31]--not evaluable Ear, face and neck anomalies Artama (Carbamazepine), 2005 10.23[0.01; 4.86]2805not evaluable Genital anomalies Artama (Carbamazepine), 2005 10.93[0.25; 3.49]9805not evaluable Growth parameters and prematurity Preterm (< 37 weeks) Van der Pol (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, sick), 1991 Diav-Citrin (Carbamazepine), 2001 Endo (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, sick), 2004 McVearry (Carbamazepine), 2009 Nadebaum (Carbamazepine), 2011 Cummings (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, disease free), 2011 Pennell (Carbamazepine), 2012 Veiby (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, sick) b, 2013 Artama (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, sick), 2013 Arkilo (Carbamazepine), 2015 Cohen (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed NOS), 2019 Coste (Carbamazepine), 2020 Aydin (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, sick), 2020 Bromley (Carbamazepine) (Epilepsy) (Controls unexposed, sick), 2023 141.05[0.85; 1.29]160,9821,677low Small for gestational age (weight) Wide (Carbamazepine), 2000 Endo (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, sick), 2004 Burja (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, sick), 2006 Pennell (Carbamazepine), 2012 Veiby (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, sick) b, 2013 Artama (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, sick), 2013 Cohen (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed NOS), 2019 Aydin (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, sick), 2020 Dreier (Carbamazepine), 2021 Bromley (Carbamazepine) (Epilepsy) (Controls unexposed, sick), 2023 101.17[0.79; 1.73]41,7823,995low Low birth weight (< 2500g) Kini (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, sick), 2006 Artama (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, sick), 2013 Veiby (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, sick) b, 2013 Coste (Carbamazepine), 2020 41.16[0.71; 1.92]2931,414not evaluable Large for gestational age (weight) Artama (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, sick), 2013 Aydin (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, sick), 2020 20.88[0.59; 1.32]1101,092not evaluable Macrosomia (> 4000g) Endo (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, sick), 2004 Kini (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, sick), 2006 Coste (Carbamazepine), 2020 31.04[0.77; 1.42]727278not evaluable Large head circumference for gestational age Díaz-Romero (Carbamazepine), 1999 10.29[0.01; 16.12]-26not evaluable Very preterm (28 to 32 weeks) Coste (Carbamazepine), 2020 13.02[0.64; 14.32]10176not evaluable Maternal consequences Caesarean Endo (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, sick), 2004 Borthen (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, sick), 2010 Artama (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, sick), 2013 31.03[0.88; 1.21]9441,480not evaluable Preeclampsia Borthen (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, sick), 2011 Pennell (Carbamazepine), 2012 Cohen (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed NOS), 2019 Aydin (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, sick), 2020 41.07[0.59; 1.94]53,648135not evaluable Assisted deliveries (forceps, vacuum, ...) Endo (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, sick), 2004 Borthen (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, sick), 2010 20.82[0.11; 5.98]194396not evaluable Gestational diabetes McVearry (Carbamazepine), 2009 Pennell (Carbamazepine), 2012 Aydin (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, sick), 2020 Mari (Carbamazepine), 2022 40.42[0.11; 1.61]11152not evaluable Amniotic fluid problems (polyhydramnios and/or oligohydramnios) Aydin (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, sick), 2020 Mari (Carbamazepine), 2022 21.77[0.15; 20.65]244not evaluable Postpartum hemorrhage Borthen (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, sick), 2010 11.18[0.88; 1.58]342388not evaluable Abruptio placentae (retroplacental hematoma) Cohen (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed NOS), 2019 11.07[0.37; 3.08]20,260-not evaluable Polyhydramnios Endo (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, sick), 2004 10.23[0.00; 17.06]18not evaluable Maternal consequences (as a whole) Alsfouk (Carbamazepine), 2022 12.53[0.59; 10.85]1531not evaluable Maternal death Mari (Carbamazepine), 2022 10.37[0.01; 19.78]-29not evaluable Maternal liver disorder / failure during pregnancy Mari (Carbamazepine), 2022 11.15[0.04; 30.40]129not evaluable Neonatal disorders Low Apgar score (< 7) (at 5 min) Borthen (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, sick), 2010 Pennell (Carbamazepine), 2012 Veiby (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, sick) b, 2013 Artama (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, sick), 2013 41.56[0.84; 2.89]56794not evaluable Neonatal medical care D'Souza (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, sick), 1991 Viinikainen (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, disease free) a, 2006 Artama (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, sick), 2013 Aydin (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, sick), 2020 Bromley (Carbamazepine) (Epilepsy) (Controls unexposed, sick), 2023 51.19[0.91; 1.54]2,0821,021not evaluable Low Apgar score (< 7) (at 1 min) Van der Pol (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, sick), 1991 Endo (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, sick), 2004 Pennell (Carbamazepine), 2012 Artama (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, sick), 2013 41.16[0.79; 1.71]1211,014not evaluable Feeding difficulty D'Souza (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, sick), 1991 Yerby (Carbamazepine), 1992 Burja (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, sick), 2006 31.49[0.22; 9.94]341not evaluable Neonatal disorders (as a whole) D'Souza (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, sick), 1991 Bromley (Carbamazepine) (Epilepsy) (Controls unexposed, sick), 2023 21.04[0.37; 2.96]2330not evaluable Neonatal intracranial hemorrhage D'Souza (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, sick), 1991 Burja (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, sick), 2006 23.82[0.73; 20.07]622not evaluable Withdrawal syndrome / Neonatal abstinence syndrome / Poor neonatal adaptation Burja (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, sick), 2006 11.70[0.03; 89.48]-19not evaluable Cerebral palsy Van der Pol (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, sick), 1991 16.79[0.25; 182.34]111not evaluable Jaundice / Icterus D'Souza (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, sick), 1991 13.50[0.14; 84.70]23not evaluable Neonatal death (< 28 days of life) Holmes (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, disease free), 2011 11.66[0.19; 14.33]6573not evaluable Neonatal hypotonia D'Souza (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, sick), 1991 13.00[0.05; 194.76]-3not evaluable Neonatal infections D'Souza (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, sick), 1991 13.00[0.05; 194.76]-3not evaluable Neonatal tachypnea D'Souza (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, sick), 1991 13.00[0.05; 194.76]-3not evaluable Fetal distress McVearry (Carbamazepine), 2009 10.75[0.14; 4.04]716not evaluable Long term consequences Behavioral disorders Cohen (Carbamazepine), 2013 Veiby (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, sick) b, 2013 Huber-Mollema (Carbamazepine), 2019 Dreier (Carbamazepine) (Epilepsy) (Controls unexposed, sick), 2023 41.12[0.67; 1.87]1612,785not evaluable Child/Infant death (> 28 days of life) Van der Pol (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, sick), 1991 Artama (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, sick), 2013 22.22[0.65; 7.53]121,089not evaluable Emotional disorders Cohen (Carbamazepine), 2013 Huber-Mollema (Carbamazepine), 2019 Dreier (Carbamazepine) (Epilepsy) (Controls unexposed, sick), 2023 30.89[0.61; 1.30]1282,754not evaluable Child/Infant growth abnormalities (> 1 year) Pennell (Carbamazepine), 2012 10.52[0.12; 2.16]963not evaluable Child/Infant head circumference abnormalities (> 1 year) Pennell (Carbamazepine), 2012 15.81[0.27; 123.89]252not evaluable Child/Infant lenght abnormalities (> 1 year) Kini (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, sick), 2006 11.65[0.45; 6.05]1094not evaluable Child/Infant weight abnormalities (> 1 year) Kini (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, sick), 2006 11.25[0.43; 3.59]1594not evaluable Intrauterine deaths Intrauterine deaths (as a whole or unspecified) Diav-Citrin (Carbamazepine), 2001 Meador (Carbamazepine), 2006 Holmes (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, disease free), 2011 Campbell (Carbamazepine) (Controls exposed to Lamotrigine, sick), 2014 Arkilo (Carbamazepine), 2015 Tomson (Carbamazepine), 2015 Miškov (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, sick), 2016 Vajda (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, sick), 2018 Trivedi (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, sick), 2018 Meador (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, sick), 2020 101.29[0.91; 1.83]5845,135critical Late intrauterine deaths (> 22 weeks) Diav-Citrin (Carbamazepine), 2001 Holmes (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, disease free), 2011 Campbell (Carbamazepine) (Controls exposed to Lamotrigine, sick), 2014 Arkilo (Carbamazepine), 2015 Tomson (Carbamazepine), 2015 AlSheikh (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, sick), 2020 Aydin (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, sick), 2020 Mari (Carbamazepine), 2022 81.53[0.71; 3.30]494,177not evaluable Elective/induced termination of pregnancy Diav-Citrin (Carbamazepine), 2001 Holmes (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, disease free), 2011 Campbell (Carbamazepine) (Controls exposed to Lamotrigine, sick), 2014 Miškov (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, sick), 2016 Hosny (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, sick), 2021 Mari (Carbamazepine), 2022 61.82[1.01; 3.28]432,472serious Early intrauterine death (< 22 weeks) Diav-Citrin (Carbamazepine), 2001 Campbell (Carbamazepine) (Controls exposed to Lamotrigine, sick), 2014 Tomson (Carbamazepine), 2015 Arkilo (Carbamazepine), 2015 Miškov (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, sick), 2016 50.90[0.74; 1.10]4313,569not evaluable Perinatal death Canger (Carbamazepine), 1999 Artama (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, sick), 2013 Tomson (Carbamazepine), 2015 31.42[0.62; 3.25]262,767not evaluable Therapeutic terminations of pregnancy Miškov (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, sick), 2016 10.28[0.00; 16.82]-13not evaluable Ectopic pregnancy Campbell (Carbamazepine) (Controls exposed to Lamotrigine, sick), 2014 13.84[0.16; 94.34]11,718not evaluable Neuro-developmental disorders Language disorders/delay Gaily (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, sick), 2004 Adab (Carbamazepine), 2004 Eriksson (Carbamazepine), 2005 Nadebaum (Carbamazepine), 2011 Meador (Carbamazepine), 2013 Baker (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, sick), 2015 Deshmukh (Carbamazepine), 2016 Videman (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, disease free), 2016 Kasradze (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, disease free), 2017 Husebye (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, sick), 2020 Coste (Carbamazepine), 2020 Meador (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, disease free), 2021 Adams (Carbamazepine), 2022 Thomas (Carbamazepine), 2022 Bromley (Carbamazepine) (Epilepsy) (Controls unexposed, sick), 2023 151.52[0.94; 2.45]257729low Cognitive developmental disorders/delay (> 6 years old) Adab (Carbamazepine), 2004 Gaily (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, sick), 2004 Vinten (Carbamazepine), 2005 Viinikainen (Carbamazepine) b, 2006 Titze (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, sick), 2008 Nadebaum (Carbamazepine), 2011 Meador (Carbamazepine), 2013 Baker (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, sick), 2015 Adams (Carbamazepine), 2022 Thomas (Carbamazepine), 2022 Dreier (Carbamazepine) (Epilepsy) (Controls unexposed, sick), 2023 111.19[0.86; 1.65]2403,096low Neuro-developmental disorders (as a whole) Van der Pol (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, sick), 1991 Katz (Carbamazepine), 2001 Adab (Carbamazepine), 2004 Viinikainen (Carbamazepine) b, 2006 Dean (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, sick), 2007 Bromley (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, sick), 2013 Arkilo (Carbamazepine), 2015 Charlton (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, sick), 2017 Bjørk (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, sick), 2022 91.09[0.71; 1.65]6033,003not evaluable Psychomotor developmental disorders/delay Ornoy (Carbamazepine), 1996 Adab (Carbamazepine), 2004 Viinikainen (Carbamazepine) b, 2006 Thomas b (Carbamazepine), 2008 Cohen (Carbamazepine), 2011 Bromley (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, sick), 2013 Deshmukh (Carbamazepine), 2016 Videman (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, disease free), 2016 Bromley (Carbamazepine) (Epilepsy) (Controls unexposed, sick), 2023 91.01[0.69; 1.47]65425not evaluable ADHD (Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder): Diagnosis/Risk Viinikainen (Carbamazepine) b, 2006 Veiby (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, sick) b, 2013 Bromley (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, sick), 2013 Cohen (Carbamazepine), 2013 Huber-Mollema (Carbamazepine), 2019 Wiggs (Carbamazepine), 2020 Dreier (Carbamazepine) (Epilepsy) (Controls unexposed, sick), 2023 71.11[0.93; 1.33]6412,827not evaluable ASD (Autism spectrum disorder): Diagnosis/Risk Bromley (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, sick), 2013 Wood (Carbamazepine), 2015 Bjørk (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, sick), 2018 Huber-Mollema (Carbamazepine), 2019 Wiggs (Carbamazepine), 2020 Coste (Carbamazepine), 2020 Dreier (Carbamazepine) (Epilepsy) (Controls unexposed, sick), 2023 71.16[0.91; 1.49]4123,003not evaluable Cognitive developmental disorders/delay (< 3 years old) Ornoy (Carbamazepine), 1996 Wide (Carbamazepine), 2000 Thomas b (Carbamazepine), 2008 Bromley (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, sick), 2010 Meador (Carbamazepine), 2013 Videman (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, disease free), 2016 Bromley (Carbamazepine) (Epilepsy) (Controls unexposed, sick), 2023 71.71[0.73; 4.01]85303not evaluable ASD (Autism spectrum disorder): Diagnosis Bromley (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, sick), 2013 Wood (Carbamazepine), 2015 Huber-Mollema (Carbamazepine), 2019 Wiggs (Carbamazepine), 2020 Coste (Carbamazepine), 2020 Dreier (Carbamazepine) (Epilepsy) (Controls unexposed, sick), 2023 61.14[0.88; 1.47]3792,962not evaluable Severe cognitive developmental delay (Mental retardation) (> 6 years old) Gaily (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, sick), 2004 Vinten (Carbamazepine), 2005 Viinikainen (Carbamazepine) b, 2006 Titze (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, sick), 2008 Meador (Carbamazepine), 2013 Dreier (Carbamazepine) (Epilepsy) (Controls unexposed, sick), 2023 61.08[0.73; 1.59]2352,881not evaluable ADHD (Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder): Diagnosis Bromley (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, sick), 2013 Cohen (Carbamazepine), 2013 Huber-Mollema (Carbamazepine), 2019 Wiggs (Carbamazepine), 2020 Dreier (Carbamazepine) (Epilepsy) (Controls unexposed, sick), 2023 51.11[0.93; 1.33]6332,784not evaluable Cognitive developmental disorders/delay (3-6 years old) Cummings (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, disease free), 2011 Meador (Carbamazepine), 2013 Deshmukh (Carbamazepine), 2016 Kasradze (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, disease free), 2017 Coste (Carbamazepine), 2020 52.74[1.17; 6.42]42392not evaluable ADHD (Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder): Risk Viinikainen (Carbamazepine) b, 2006 Cohen (Carbamazepine), 2013 Veiby (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, sick) b, 2013 Huber-Mollema (Carbamazepine), 2019 41.23[0.49; 3.05]30131not evaluable Learning disorders Van der Pol (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, sick), 1991 Forsberg (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, sick), 2011 Ren (Carbamazepine) (Epilepsy), 2023 31.18[0.96; 1.45]51391not evaluable ASD (Autism spectrum disorder): Risk Wood (Carbamazepine), 2015 Bjørk (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, sick), 2018 Huber-Mollema (Carbamazepine), 2019 31.27[0.53; 3.03]38111not evaluable Severe cognitive developmental delay (Mental retardation) (3-6 years old) Cummings (Carbamazepine) (Controls unexposed, disease free), 2011 Meador (Carbamazepine), 2013 Coste (Carbamazepine), 2020 31.83[0.38; 8.89]15279not evaluable Severe cognitive developmental delay (Mental retardation) (< 3 years old) Meador (Carbamazepine), 2013 11.48[0.45; 4.89]1248not evaluable0.0100.01.0