Table   Graphic  
  individual studies
OutcomeTE95% CIn casesn exposedkPub. bias All congenital malformations (majors, minors, majors and minors, or unspecified) 81.04[0.96; 1.12]167,592116,161not evaluable Cleft lip with or without cleft palate 71.03[0.88; 1.21]4,58592,238not evaluable Congenital heart defects 61.13[0.96; 1.33]59,616116,155not evaluable Major congenital malformations 71.02[0.99; 1.05]150,947115,320not evaluable Ventricular septal defect 71.13[0.99; 1.27]19,11096,086not evaluable Cleft palate 61.26[0.87; 1.82]3,36391,261not evaluable Atrial septal defect 51.05[0.79; 1.39]5,71591,265not evaluable Hypospadias 50.90[0.70; 1.15]3,3231,874not evaluable Oro-facial clefts 41.20[1.02; 1.40]3,506113,549not evaluable Atrioventricular septal defect 41.38[0.65; 2.93]6,19090,765not evaluable Club foot / Talipes equinovarus 41.09[0.83; 1.44]1,0612,714not evaluable Limb defects 41.02[0.92; 1.11]8,42590,330not evaluable Ano-rectal atresia and stenosis 30.79[0.49; 1.27]6711,881not evaluable Atresia or stenosis of other parts of small intestine 30.97[0.61; 1.53]3941,880not evaluable Coarctation of aorta 30.95[0.69; 1.29]8441,903not evaluable Diaphragmatic hernia 31.70[1.17; 2.48]8752,394not evaluable Gastroschisis 30.89[0.61; 1.29]9591,894not evaluable Hypoplastic left heart 31.49[1.03; 2.17]8381,539not evaluable Pulmonary valve stenosis 31.08[0.79; 1.48]1,0251,913not evaluable Severe congenital heart defect 20.76[0.63; 0.93]1,88088,851not evaluable Single ventricle 20.90[0.34; 2.37]42488,706not evaluable Total anomalous pulm venous return 20.84[0.55; 1.30]50288,705not evaluable Abdominal wall defects 20.98[0.90; 1.07]8,81689,679not evaluable Bilateral renal agenesis including Potter syndrome 21.85[1.13; 3.02]1611,630not evaluable Cardiac septal defects 21.57[1.17; 2.12]39,4752,528not evaluable Congenital cataract 20.94[0.46; 1.91]2111,494not evaluable Digestive system anomalies 20.93[0.85; 1.02]9,59889,700not evaluable Eye defects 20.95[0.69; 1.30]77289,700not evaluable Genital anomalies 21.06[0.97; 1.17]7,10089,679not evaluable Limb reduction defects 21.01[0.39; 2.58]5632,115not evaluable Nervous system anomalies 20.94[0.81; 1.09]3,49689,679not evaluable Oesophageal atresia with or without tracheo-oesophageal fistula 20.71[0.40; 1.28]3641,496not evaluable Patent ductus arterious 10.90[0.73; 1.11]1,67588,446not evaluable Respiratory system anomalies 21.13[1.01; 1.27]3,95189,679not evaluable Spina bifida 21.24[0.83; 1.83]461620not evaluable Transposition of the great vessels 20.80[0.52; 1.23]584649not evaluable Urinary malformations 21.24[0.76; 2.01]17689,679not evaluable Anophthalmos/micropthalmos 10.90[0.31; 2.65]132257not evaluable Anotia 11.10[0.59; 2.06]354263not evaluable Aortic valve atresia/stenosis 10.50[0.20; 1.22]272260not evaluable Atresia of bile ducts 11.30[0.51; 3.29]101258not evaluable Choanal atresia 11.33[0.05; 32.76]11,233not evaluable Congenital constriction bands/amniotic band 11.30[0.51; 3.29]155258not evaluable Congenital glaucoma 14.00[0.25; 64.04]21,233not evaluable Congenital hydronephrosis 10.80[0.17; 3.65]121,233not evaluable Congenital skin disorders 10.57[0.03; 11.07]31,233not evaluable Ear malformations 11.67[1.17; 2.38]45088,446not evaluable Ear, face and neck anomalies 14.00[0.25; 64.04]21,233not evaluable Ebstein's anomaly 11.10[0.39; 3.11]108257not evaluable Hirschsprung's disease 11.20[0.60; 2.40]110385not evaluable0.0100.01.0