Carbimazole, Thiamazole (Methimazole)

Table   Graphic  
  individual studies
OutcomeTE95% CIn casesn exposedkPub. bias All congenital malformations (majors, minors, majors and minors, or unspecified) Momotani, 1984 Wing (control unexposed, sick), 1994 Dwarakanath (control exposed to PTU), 1999 Di Gianantonio, 2001 Azizi, 2002 Banhidy, 2011 Yoshihara (control unexposed, sick), 2012 Gianetti (control unexposed, sick), 2015 Hawken (control exposed to PTU), 2016 Andersen 2017 (control unexposed, sick), 2017 Seo (control unexposed, NOS), 2018 Andersen (control unexposed, disease free), 2019 121.41[1.14; 1.74]249,1054,750low Major congenital malformations Momotani, 1984 Wing (control unexposed, sick), 1994 Dwarakanath (control exposed to PTU), 1999 Di Gianantonio, 2001 Yoshihara (control unexposed, sick), 2012 Gianetti (control unexposed, sick), 2015 61.85[1.20; 2.85]1341,846serious Genital anomalies Andersen 2017 (control unexposed, sick), 2017 Seo (control unexposed, NOS), 2018 Andersen (control unexposed, disease free), 2019 31.11[0.75; 1.63]25,7662,856not evaluable Respiratory system anomalies Andersen 2017 (control unexposed, sick), 2017 Seo (control unexposed, NOS), 2018 Andersen (control unexposed, disease free), 2019 31.62[1.11; 2.37]15,9982,856not evaluable Urinary malformations Andersen 2017 (control unexposed, sick), 2017 Seo (control unexposed, NOS), 2018 Andersen (control unexposed, disease free), 2019 31.69[1.08; 2.67]17,6452,856not evaluable Carbimazole embryopathy Di Gianantonio, 2001 Barbero, 2008 Clementi, 2010 Yoshihara (control unexposed, sick), 2012 Seo (control unexposed, NOS), 2018 Andersen (control unexposed, disease free), 2019 614.62[10.40; 20.55]2,3164,301not evaluable Eye defects Andersen 2017 (control unexposed, sick), 2017 Andersen (control unexposed, disease free), 2019 22.38[1.21; 4.71]2,4931,736not evaluable Congenital heart defects Andersen 2017 (control unexposed, sick), 2017 Seo (control unexposed, NOS), 2018 Andersen (control unexposed, disease free), 2019 31.73[1.40; 2.15]77,4052,856not evaluable Limb defects Andersen 2017 (control unexposed, sick), 2017 Seo (control unexposed, NOS), 2018 Andersen (control unexposed, disease free), 2019 30.85[0.65; 1.12]74,5332,856not evaluable Digestive system anomalies Andersen 2017 (control unexposed, sick), 2017 Seo (control unexposed, NOS), 2018 Andersen (control unexposed, disease free), 2019 32.99[2.05; 4.36]15,2732,856not evaluable Severe congenital heart defect Clementi, 2010 Yoshihara (control unexposed, sick), 2012 20.87[0.25; 3.03]7391,311not evaluable Abdominal wall defects Andersen 2017 (control unexposed, sick), 2017 Andersen (control unexposed, disease free), 2019 25.44[2.63; 11.23]9331,736not evaluable Ear, face and neck anomalies Andersen 2017 (control unexposed, sick), 2017 Andersen (control unexposed, disease free), 2019 20.58[0.08; 4.33]9121,736not evaluable Nervous system anomalies Andersen 2017 (control unexposed, sick), 2017 Seo (control unexposed, NOS), 2018 22.85[1.39; 5.87]5,8521,282not evaluable Syndromes and chromosomal abnormalities Andersen 2017 (control unexposed, sick), 2017 Andersen (control unexposed, disease free), 2019 21.16[0.62; 2.17]5,5531,736not evaluable Cardiac septal defects Andersen 2014 (control unexposed, disease free), 2014 11.87[1.14; 3.06]-1,097not evaluable Other congenital malformations (Q80-84) Andersen 2017 (control unexposed, sick), 2017 Andersen (control unexposed, disease free), 2019 22.32[0.38; 14.27]2,0221,736not evaluable Ear malformations Andersen 2017 (control unexposed, sick), 2017 19.60[0.19; 485.50]-162not evaluable Omphalocele Clementi, 2010 Yoshihara (control unexposed, sick), 2012 211.60[3.61; 37.27]1601,311not evaluable Situs inversus Clementi, 2010 Yoshihara (control unexposed, sick), 2012 25.49[0.58; 51.80]251,311not evaluable Ano-rectal atresia and stenosis Yoshihara (control unexposed, sick), 2012 10.77[0.07; 8.55]31,231not evaluable Aortic valve atresia/stenosis Yoshihara (control unexposed, sick), 2012 10.52[0.02; 12.68]11,231not evaluable Aplasia cutis congenita Yoshihara (control unexposed, sick), 2012 123.36[1.33; 409.42]71,231not evaluable Atresia of bile ducts Yoshihara (control unexposed, sick), 2012 11.55[0.10; 24.79]21,231not evaluable Atresia or stenosis of other parts of small intestine Yoshihara (control unexposed, sick), 2012 14.65[0.19; 114.23]11,231not evaluable Atrial septal defect Yoshihara (control unexposed, sick), 2012 10.52[0.02; 12.68]11,231not evaluable Brachydactyly Yoshihara (control unexposed, sick), 2012 11.55[0.03; 78.10]-1,231not evaluable Choanal atresia Barbero, 2008 Clementi, 2010 225.89[7.52; 89.13]11992not evaluable Chromosomal abnormalities Gianetti (control unexposed, sick), 2015 10.32[0.02; 6.82]2124not evaluable Cleft lip with or without cleft palate Yoshihara (control unexposed, sick), 2012 10.31[0.01; 6.45]21,231not evaluable Club foot / Talipes equinovarus Yoshihara (control unexposed, sick), 2012 10.52[0.02; 12.68]11,231not evaluable Congenital cataract Yoshihara (control unexposed, sick), 2012 10.52[0.02; 12.68]11,231not evaluable Congenital hydronephrosis Yoshihara (control unexposed, sick), 2012 14.65[0.19; 114.23]11,231not evaluable Diaphragmatic hernia Yoshihara (control unexposed, sick), 2012 10.52[0.02; 12.68]11,231not evaluable Down syndrom / Trisomy 21 Yoshihara (control unexposed, sick), 2012 12.33[0.39; 13.94]51,231not evaluable Eye, ear, face and neck malformations Seo (control unexposed, NOS), 2018 11.00[0.37; 2.69]9,4471,120not evaluable Hypospadias Yoshihara (control unexposed, sick), 2012 11.55[0.03; 78.10]-1,231not evaluable Intestinal malrotation Yoshihara (control unexposed, sick), 2012 10.22[0.01; 4.28]31,231not evaluable Multicystic renal dysplasia Yoshihara (control unexposed, sick), 2012 11.55[0.10; 24.79]21,231not evaluable Oesophageal atresia with or without tracheo-oesophageal fistula Yoshihara (control unexposed, sick), 2012 17.76[0.37; 161.69]21,231not evaluable Oro-facial clefts Seo (control unexposed, NOS), 2018 10.72[0.10; 5.14]3,4471,120not evaluable Other congenital malformations (Q80 to Q99) Seo (control unexposed, NOS), 2018 11.91[0.95; 3.83]10,0311,120not evaluable Patent ductus arterious Yoshihara (control unexposed, sick), 2012 113.98[0.75; 259.95]41,231not evaluable Pulmonary artery stenosis Yoshihara (control unexposed, sick), 2012 10.52[0.02; 12.68]11,231not evaluable Skeletal dysplasia Yoshihara (control unexposed, sick), 2012 10.52[0.02; 12.68]11,231not evaluable Spina bifida Yoshihara (control unexposed, sick), 2012 14.65[0.19; 114.23]11,231not evaluable Sturge-Weber syndrome Yoshihara (control unexposed, sick), 2012 14.65[0.19; 114.23]11,231not evaluable Syndactyly Yoshihara (control unexposed, sick), 2012 10.52[0.02; 12.68]11,231not evaluable Tetralogy of Fallot Yoshihara (control unexposed, sick), 2012 14.65[0.19; 114.23]11,231not evaluable Transposition of the great vessels Yoshihara (control unexposed, sick), 2012 10.52[0.02; 12.68]11,231not evaluable0.0100.01.0