Thiouracil, propylthiouracil, benzylthiouracil

Table   Graphic  
individual studies
OutcomeTE95% CIn casesn exposedkPub. bias Congenital malformations All congenital malformations (majors, minors, majors and minors, or unspecified) Wing (control unexposed, sick), 1994 Dwarakanath (control exposed to MMI), 1999 Rosenfeld, 2009 Banhidy, 2011 Yoshihara (control unexposed, sick), 2012 Gianetti (control unexposed, sick), 2015 Hawken (control exposed to MMI), 2016 Andersen 2017 (control unexposed, sick), 2017 Seo (control unexposed, NOS), 2018 Andersen 2019 (control unexposed, disease free), 2019 Yoshihara (Controls unexposed, sick), 2021 111.01[0.83; 1.22]249,67113,231probable Major congenital malformations Wing (control unexposed, sick), 1994 Dwarakanath (control exposed to MMI), 1999 Rosenfeld, 2009 Banhidy, 2011 Yoshihara (control unexposed, sick), 2012 Gianetti (control unexposed, sick), 2015 60.70[0.46; 1.07]1801,640not evaluable Genital anomalies Andersen 2017 (control unexposed, sick), 2017 Seo (control unexposed, NOS), 2018 Andersen 2019 (control unexposed, disease free), 2019 31.22[0.96; 1.54]25,81111,037not evaluable Limb defects Andersen 2017 (control unexposed, sick), 2017 Seo (control unexposed, NOS), 2018 Andersen 2019 (control unexposed, disease free), 2019 31.20[1.05; 1.37]74,70611,037not evaluable Respiratory system anomalies Andersen 2017 (control unexposed, sick), 2017 Seo (control unexposed, NOS), 2018 Andersen 2019 (control unexposed, disease free), 2019 31.22[0.76; 1.96]16,00711,037not evaluable Urinary malformations Andersen 2017 (control unexposed, sick), 2017 Seo (control unexposed, NOS), 2018 Andersen 2019 (control unexposed, disease free), 2019 31.63[1.01; 2.62]17,69611,037not evaluable Eye defects Andersen 2017 (control unexposed, sick), 2017 Andersen 2019 (control unexposed, disease free), 2019 20.44[0.06; 3.31]2,4841,107not evaluable Congenital heart defects Andersen 2017 (control unexposed, sick), 2017 Seo (control unexposed, NOS), 2018 Andersen 2019 (control unexposed, disease free), 2019 31.05[0.84; 1.31]77,56811,037not evaluable Severe congenital heart defect Clementi, 2010 Yoshihara (control unexposed, sick), 2012 21.20[0.06; 22.67]7391,446not evaluable Abdominal wall defects Andersen 2017 (control unexposed, sick), 2017 Andersen 2019 (control unexposed, disease free), 2019 21.19[0.15; 9.65]9261,107not evaluable Ano-rectal atresia and stenosis Yoshihara (control unexposed, sick), 2012 Howley, 2017 Yoshihara (Controls unexposed, sick), 2021 31.62[0.19; 14.09]1,0561,954not evaluable Carbimazole embryopathy Clementi, 2010 Yoshihara (control unexposed, sick), 2012 Seo (control unexposed, NOS), 2018 31.61[0.92; 2.79]2,24311,423not evaluable Digestive system anomalies Andersen 2017 (control unexposed, sick), 2017 Seo (control unexposed, NOS), 2018 21.47[0.59; 3.67]12,04510,148not evaluable Nervous system anomalies Andersen 2017 (control unexposed, sick), 2017 Seo (control unexposed, NOS), 2018 21.09[0.72; 1.65]5,86810,148not evaluable Omphalocele Clementi, 2010 Yoshihara (control unexposed, sick), 2012 Yoshihara (Controls unexposed, sick), 2021 30.79[0.19; 3.23]1591,987not evaluable Syndromes and chromosomal abnormalities Andersen 2017 (control unexposed, sick), 2017 Andersen 2019 (control unexposed, disease free), 2019 20.84[0.33; 2.12]5,5471,107not evaluable Atresia of bile ducts Yoshihara (control unexposed, sick), 2012 Yoshihara (Controls unexposed, sick), 2021 20.36[0.04; 3.50]21,940not evaluable Cardiac septal defects 0----- Congenital hydronephrosis Yoshihara (control unexposed, sick), 2012 Yoshihara (Controls unexposed, sick), 2021 22.85[0.67; 12.10]91,940not evaluable Hypospadias Yoshihara (control unexposed, sick), 2012 Yoshihara (Controls unexposed, sick), 2021 22.38[0.35; 16.30]41,940not evaluable Oro-facial clefts Seo (control unexposed, NOS), 2018 Yoshihara (Controls unexposed, sick), 2021 20.98[0.56; 1.70]3,46010,471not evaluable Ventricular septal defect Yoshihara (control unexposed, sick), 2012 Yoshihara (Controls unexposed, sick), 2021 20.89[0.42; 1.88]281,940not evaluable Aortic valve atresia/stenosis Yoshihara (control unexposed, sick), 2012 Howley, 2017 23.29[0.12; 89.46]4941,412not evaluable Craniosynostosis Yoshihara (control unexposed, sick), 2012 Howley, 2017 21.19[0.30; 4.68]1,5351,411not evaluable Ear malformations Andersen 2017 (control unexposed, sick), 2017 135.97[1.72; 751.88]2218not evaluable Ear, face and neck anomalies Andersen 2017 (control unexposed, sick), 2017 12.86[0.55; 14.85]7218not evaluable Other congenital malformations (Q80-84) Andersen 2017 (control unexposed, sick), 2017 10.37[0.02; 6.43]9218not evaluable Pulmonary valve stenosis Howley, 2017 Yoshihara (Controls unexposed, sick), 2021 20.77[0.15; 4.01]1,517552not evaluable Situs inversus Clementi, 2010 Yoshihara (control unexposed, sick), 2012 215.05[1.80; 126.08]271,446not evaluable Aplasia cutis congenita Yoshihara (control unexposed, sick), 2012 11.36[0.03; 68.71]-1,399not evaluable Atresia or stenosis of other parts of small intestine Yoshihara (control unexposed, sick), 2012 11.36[0.03; 68.71]-1,399not evaluable Atrial septal defect Yoshihara (control unexposed, sick), 2012 12.73[0.25; 30.11]31,399not evaluable Brachydactyly Yoshihara (control unexposed, sick), 2012 14.09[0.17; 100.49]11,399not evaluable Chromosomal abnormalities Gianetti (control unexposed, sick), 2015 14.02[0.55; 29.24]452not evaluable Cleft lip with or without cleft palate Yoshihara (control unexposed, sick), 2012 10.68[0.06; 7.52]31,399not evaluable Club foot / Talipes equinovarus Yoshihara (control unexposed, sick), 2012 10.45[0.02; 11.15]11,399not evaluable Congenital cataract Yoshihara (control unexposed, sick), 2012 10.45[0.02; 11.15]11,399not evaluable Diaphragmatic hernia Yoshihara (control unexposed, sick), 2012 10.45[0.02; 11.15]11,399not evaluable Down syndrom / Trisomy 21 Yoshihara (control unexposed, sick), 2012 11.36[0.19; 9.69]41,399not evaluable Eye, ear, face and neck malformations Seo (control unexposed, NOS), 2018 11.21[0.89; 1.64]9,4849,930not evaluable Intestinal malrotation Yoshihara (control unexposed, sick), 2012 10.45[0.05; 4.37]41,399not evaluable Multicystic renal dysplasia Yoshihara (control unexposed, sick), 2012 10.45[0.02; 11.15]11,399not evaluable Oesophageal atresia with or without tracheo-oesophageal fistula Yoshihara (control unexposed, sick), 2012 11.36[0.03; 68.71]-1,399not evaluable Other congenital malformations (Q80 to Q99) Seo (control unexposed, NOS), 2018 11.14[0.84; 1.55]10,0649,930not evaluable Patent ductus arterious Yoshihara (control unexposed, sick), 2012 14.09[0.17; 100.49]11,399not evaluable Polydactyly Yoshihara (Controls unexposed, sick), 2021 12.64[0.11; 64.93]1541not evaluable Pulmonary artery stenosis Yoshihara (control unexposed, sick), 2012 10.45[0.02; 11.15]11,399not evaluable Spina bifida Yoshihara (control unexposed, sick), 2012 14.09[0.17; 100.49]11,399not evaluable Sturge-Weber syndrome Yoshihara (control unexposed, sick), 2012 11.36[0.03; 68.71]-1,399not evaluable Syndactyly Yoshihara (control unexposed, sick), 2012 14.09[0.43; 39.40]41,399not evaluable Tetralogy of Fallot Yoshihara (control unexposed, sick), 2012 14.09[0.17; 100.49]11,399not evaluable Transposition of the great vessels Yoshihara (control unexposed, sick), 2012 10.45[0.02; 11.15]11,399not evaluable Choanal atresia Clementi, 2010 13.31[0.20; 54.40]5847not evaluable Coarctation of aorta Howley, 2017 17.97[1.64; 38.62]1,13714not evaluable Gastroschisis Howley, 2017 11.62[0.36; 7.42]1,39312not evaluable Growth parameters and prematurity Preterm (< 37 weeks) Dwarakanath (control exposed to MMI), 1999 Rosenfeld, 2009 Chen (control unexposed, sick), 2011 Gianetti (control unexposed, sick), 2015 Zhang, 2016 51.03[0.73; 1.46]291832not evaluable Low birth weight (< 2500g) Dwarakanath (control exposed to MMI), 1999 Chen (control unexposed, sick), 2011 21.41[1.01; 1.97]185637not evaluable Small for gestational age (weight) Chen (control unexposed, sick), 2011 11.05[0.83; 1.32]479630not evaluable Maternal consequences Maternal liver disorder / failure during pregnancy Lo (control exposed to MMI), 2015 10.42[0.02; 10.52]1556not evaluable Caesarean Gianetti (control unexposed, sick), 2015 Zhang, 2016 21.09[0.31; 3.78]9795not evaluable Preeclampsia Davis, 1989 Gianetti (control unexposed, sick), 2015 20.45[0.09; 2.24]8104not evaluable Gestational diabete Gianetti (control unexposed, sick), 2015 11.30[0.05; 32.49]152not evaluable Neonatal disorders Goiter Davis, 1989 Momotani (control exposed to MMI), 1997 Dwarakanath (control exposed to MMI), 1999 Gianetti (control unexposed, sick), 2015 Hawken (control exposed to MMI), 2016 51.35[0.37; 4.94]8167not evaluable Hypothyroidism (fetal/neonatal) Davis, 1989 Wing (control unexposed, sick), 1994 Dwarakanath (control exposed to MMI), 1999 Hawken (control exposed to MMI), 2016 40.97[0.18; 5.39]3180not evaluable Hearing loss / Auditory deficit Yoshihara (control unexposed, sick), 2012 Yoshihara (Controls unexposed, sick), 2021 20.43[0.06; 3.05]41,940not evaluable Hyperthyroidism / Thyrotoxicosis (fetal/neonatal) Davis, 1989 Dwarakanath (control exposed to MMI), 1999 Hawken (control exposed to MMI), 2016 30.87[0.12; 6.53]281not evaluable Neonatal hyperthyrotropinemia Momotani (control exposed to MMI), 1997 Gianetti (control unexposed, sick), 2015 23.82[0.36; 40.91]1586not evaluable Intrauterine deaths Elective/induced termination of pregnancy Rosenfeld, 2009 Yoshihara (control unexposed, sick), 2012 Gianetti (control unexposed, sick), 2015 31.32[0.72; 2.42]671,745not evaluable Early intrauterine death (< 22 weeks) Davis, 1989 Rosenfeld, 2009 Yoshihara (control unexposed, sick), 2012 31.24[0.62; 2.47]3941,745not evaluable Intrauterine deaths (as a whole or unspecified) Dwarakanath (control exposed to MMI), 1999 Gianetti (control unexposed, sick), 2015 Zhang, 2016 31.23[0.51; 2.93]25102not evaluable Perinatal death Yoshihara (control unexposed, sick), 2012 Gianetti (control unexposed, sick), 2015 22.00[0.17; 23.33]191,630not evaluable Late intrauterine deaths (> 22 weeks) Davis, 1989 Rosenfeld, 2009 20.20[0.01; 6.47]9167not evaluable Ectopic pregnancy 0-----0.0100.01.0