Thiouracil, propylthiouracil, benzylthiouracil

Table   Graphic     exposition period:

Congenital malformations
Adverse outcome OR 95%CII2k No. casesNo. exposedpublication biasROB
All congenital malformations (majors, minors, majors and minors, or unspecified)1.01 [0.83, 1.22]31%11 studies249,67113,231probable ROB
Major congenital malformations0.70 [0.46, 1.07]0%6 studies1801,640not evaluable ROB
Genital anomalies1.22 [0.96, 1.54]0%3 studies25,81111,037not evaluable ROB
Limb defects1.20 [1.05, 1.37]0%3 studies74,70611,037not evaluable ROB
Respiratory system anomalies1.22 [0.76, 1.96]33%3 studies16,00711,037not evaluable ROB
Urinary malformations1.63 [1.01, 2.62]38%3 studies17,69611,037not evaluable ROB
Eye defects0.44 [0.06, 3.31]0%2 studies2,4841,107not evaluable ROB
Congenital heart defects1.05 [0.84, 1.31]17%3 studies77,56811,037not evaluable ROB
Severe congenital heart defect1.20 [0.06, 22.67]70%2 studies7391,446not evaluable ROB
Abdominal wall defects1.19 [0.15, 9.65]0%2 studies9261,107not evaluable ROB
Ano-rectal atresia and stenosis1.62 [0.19, 14.09]62%3 studies1,0561,954not evaluable ROB
Carbimazole embryopathy1.60 [0.92, 2.79]0%3 studies2,24311,423not evaluable ROB
Digestive system anomalies1.47 [0.59, 3.67]40%2 studies12,04510,148not evaluable ROB
Nervous system anomalies1.09 [0.72, 1.65]0%2 studies5,86810,148not evaluable ROB
Omphalocele0.79 [0.19, 3.22]0%3 studies1591,987not evaluable ROB
Syndromes and chromosomal abnormalities0.84 [0.33, 2.12]0%2 studies5,5471,107not evaluable ROB
Atresia of bile ducts0.36 [0.04, 3.50]0%2 studies21,940not evaluable ROB
Cardiac septal defects--0 study
Congenital hydronephrosis2.85 [0.67, 12.10]0%2 studies91,940not evaluable ROB
Hypospadias2.38 [0.35, 16.30]0%2 studies41,940not evaluable ROB
Oro-facial clefts0.98 [0.56, 1.70]0%2 studies3,46010,471not evaluable ROB
Ventricular septal defect0.89 [0.42, 1.88]0%2 studies281,940not evaluable ROB
Aortic valve atresia/stenosis3.29 [0.12, 89.46]70%2 studies4941,412not evaluable ROB
Craniosynostosis1.19 [0.30, 4.68]0%2 studies1,5351,411not evaluable ROB
Ear malformations35.97 [1.72, 751.88]-1 study2218not evaluable ROB
Ear, face and neck anomalies2.86 [0.55, 14.85]-1 study7218not evaluable ROB
Other congenital malformations (Q80-84)0.37 [0.02, 6.43]-1 study9218not evaluable ROB
Pulmonary valve stenosis0.77 [0.15, 4.01]0%2 studies1,517552not evaluable ROB
Situs inversus15.05 [1.80, 126.08]0%2 studies271,446not evaluable ROB
Aplasia cutis congenita1.36 [0.03, 68.71]-1 study1,399not evaluable ROB
Atresia or stenosis of other parts of small intestine1.36 [0.03, 68.71]-1 study1,399not evaluable ROB
Atrial septal defect2.73 [0.25, 30.11]-1 study31,399not evaluable ROB
Brachydactyly4.09 [0.17, 100.49]-1 study11,399not evaluable ROB
Chromosomal abnormalities4.02 [0.55, 29.24]-1 study452not evaluable ROB
Cleft lip with or without cleft palate0.68 [0.06, 7.52]-1 study31,399not evaluable ROB
Club foot / Talipes equinovarus0.45 [0.02, 11.15]-1 study11,399not evaluable ROB
Congenital cataract0.45 [0.02, 11.15]-1 study11,399not evaluable ROB
Diaphragmatic hernia0.45 [0.02, 11.15]-1 study11,399not evaluable ROB
Down syndrom / Trisomy 211.36 [0.19, 9.69]-1 study41,399not evaluable ROB
Eye, ear, face and neck malformations1.21 [0.89, 1.64]-1 study9,4849,930not evaluable ROB
Intestinal malrotation0.45 [0.05, 4.37]-1 study41,399not evaluable ROB
Multicystic renal dysplasia0.45 [0.02, 11.15]-1 study11,399not evaluable ROB
Oesophageal atresia with or without tracheo-oesophageal fistula1.36 [0.03, 68.71]-1 study1,399not evaluable ROB
Other congenital malformations (Q80 to Q99)1.14 [0.84, 1.55]-1 study10,0649,930not evaluable ROB
Patent ductus arterious4.09 [0.17, 100.49]-1 study11,399not evaluable ROB
Polydactyly2.64 [0.11, 64.93]-1 study1541not evaluable ROB
Pulmonary artery stenosis0.45 [0.02, 11.15]-1 study11,399not evaluable ROB
Spina bifida4.09 [0.17, 100.49]-1 study11,399not evaluable ROB
Sturge-Weber syndrome1.36 [0.03, 68.71]-1 study1,399not evaluable ROB
Syndactyly4.09 [0.43, 39.40]-1 study41,399not evaluable ROB
Tetralogy of Fallot4.09 [0.17, 100.49]-1 study11,399not evaluable ROB
Transposition of the great vessels0.45 [0.02, 11.15]-1 study11,399not evaluable ROB
Choanal atresia3.30 [0.20, 54.18]-1 study5847not evaluable ROB
Coarctation of aorta7.97 [1.64, 38.62]-1 study1,13714not evaluable ROB
Gastroschisis1.62 [0.36, 7.42]-1 study1,39312not evaluable ROB

Growth parameters and prematurity
Adverse outcome OR 95%CII2k No. casesNo. exposedpublication biasROB
Preterm (< 37 weeks)1.03 [0.73, 1.46]5%5 studies291832not evaluable ROB
Low birth weight (< 2500g)1.41 [1.01, 1.97]0%2 studies185637not evaluable ROB
Small for gestational age (weight)1.05 [0.83, 1.32]-1 study479630not evaluable ROB

Maternal consequences
Adverse outcome OR 95%CII2k No. casesNo. exposedpublication biasROB
Maternal liver disorder / failure during pregnancy0.42 [0.02, 10.52]-1 study1556not evaluable ROB
Caesarean1.09 [0.31, 3.78]69%2 studies9795not evaluable ROB
Preeclampsia0.45 [0.09, 2.24]0%2 studies8104not evaluable ROB
Gestational diabete1.30 [0.05, 32.49]-1 study152not evaluable ROB

Neonatal disorders
Adverse outcome OR 95%CII2k No. casesNo. exposedpublication biasROB
Goiter1.35 [0.37, 4.94]0%5 studies8167not evaluable ROB
Hypothyroidism (fetal/neonatal)0.97 [0.18, 5.39]0%4 studies3180not evaluable ROB
Hearing loss / Auditory deficit0.43 [0.06, 3.05]0%2 studies41,940not evaluable ROB
Hyperthyroidism / Thyrotoxicosis (fetal/neonatal)0.87 [0.12, 6.53]0%3 studies281not evaluable ROB
Neonatal hyperthyrotropinemia3.82 [0.36, 40.91]57%2 studies1586not evaluable ROB

Intrauterine deaths
Adverse outcome OR 95%CII2k No. casesNo. exposedpublication biasROB
Elective/induced termination of pregnancy1.32 [0.72, 2.42]0%3 studies671,745not evaluable ROB
Early intrauterine death (< 22 weeks)1.24 [0.62, 2.47]58%3 studies3941,745not evaluable ROB
Intrauterine deaths (as a whole or unspecified)1.23 [0.51, 2.93]0%3 studies25102not evaluable ROB
Perinatal death2.00 [0.17, 23.33]59%2 studies191,630not evaluable ROB
Late intrauterine deaths (> 22 weeks)0.20 [