Carbamazepine (All indications)

Table   Graphic     exposition period:

Congenital malformations
Adverse outcome OR 95%CII2k No. casesNo. exposedpublication biasROBE-value
All congenital malformations (majors, minors, majors and minors, or unspecified)1.50 [1.26, 1.78]29%33 studies205,30913,674critical ROB2.36 [1.83; .]
Ano-rectal atresia and stenosis1.70 [0.20, 14.15]0%2 studies545523not evaluable ROB-
Bilateral renal agenesis including Potter syndrome24.28 [1.50, 392.37]-1 study75512not evaluable ROB48.06 [2.37; .]
Bladder exstrophy and/or epispadia22.22 [1.38, 358.80]-1 study82512not evaluable ROB43.94 [2.10; .]
Cardiac septal defects0.88 [0.54, 1.43]0%2 studies16,5712,196not evaluable ROB-
Cleft lip with or without cleft palate0.73 [0.15, 3.55]0%4 studies1,6401,750not evaluable ROB-
Cleft palate5.03 [1.14, 22.26]0%2 studies1,181584not evaluable ROB9.53 [1.53; .]
Club foot / Talipes equinovarus1.15 [0.48, 2.71]24%5 studies3,8114,720not evaluable ROB-
Congenital heart defects1.06 [0.76, 1.47]34%15 studies18,34111,723low ROB-
Craniosynostosis2.56 [0.25, 25.83]0%2 studies766515not evaluable ROB-
Diaphragmatic hernia1.66 [0.31, 8.82]0%2 studies378512not evaluable ROB-
Digestive system anomalies0.76 [0.32, 1.80]0%3 studies212,832not evaluable ROB-
Ebstein's anomaly36.31 [2.24, 589.29]-1 study50512not evaluable ROB72.11 [3.90; .]
Eye defects0.49 [0.16, 1.52]0%2 studies13874not evaluable ROB-
Genital anomalies1.37 [0.64, 2.93]0%3 studies1,0441,833not evaluable ROB-
Hip dislocation and/or dysplasia2.46 [0.14, 43.93]0%2 studies14not evaluable ROB-
Hypoplastic right heart (HRH/HRHS)27.57 [1.70, 446.03]-1 study66512not evaluable ROB54.64 [2.80; .]
Hypospadias1.20 [0.84, 1.71]0%11 studies9,51110,054low ROB-
Limb defects1.26 [0.78, 2.03]0%7 studies1,3264,407not evaluable ROB-
Major congenital malformations1.48 [1.23, 1.77]28%27 studies205,18212,653critical ROB2.32 [1.77; .]
Microcephaly / Small head circumference for gestational age1.26 [0.58, 2.73]19%7 studies482919not evaluable ROB-
Minor congenital malformations2.63 [1.25, 5.54]22%7 studies118244not evaluable ROB4.70 [1.81; .]
Nervous system anomalies1.12 [0.41, 3.07]16%4 studies3754,192not evaluable ROB-
Neural Tube Defects2.40 [1.00, 5.77]0%7 studies245,199not evaluable ROB-
Oro-facial clefts1.23 [0.71, 2.12]0%7 studies5,60210,029not evaluable ROB-
Polydactyly1.71 [0.74, 3.99]0%5 studies3,0953,553not evaluable ROB-
Spina bifida2.11 [1.12, 3.95]0%8 studies6262,403not evaluable ROB3.63 [1.50; .]
Urinary malformations1.30 [0.60, 2.80]19%4 studies383,937not evaluable ROB-
16 non statistically significant endpoints reported in only one study

Growth parameters and prematurity
Adverse outcome OR 95%CII2k No. casesNo. exposedpublication biasROBE-value
Large for gestational age (weight)0.88 [0.59, 1.32]0%2 studies1101,092not evaluable ROB-
Low birth weight (< 2500g)1.26 [0.93, 1.70]36%5 studies91,6262,053not evaluable ROB-
Macrosomia (> 4000g)0.99 [0.82, 1.20]0%3 studies576,481570not evaluable ROB-
Preterm (< 37 weeks)1.06 [0.88, 1.27]12%16 studies252,4643,556critical ROB-
Small for gestational age (weight)1.12 [0.93, 1.36]30%13 studies209,5476,050low ROB-
3 non statistically significant endpoints reported in only one study

Maternal consequences
Adverse outcome OR 95%CII2k No. casesNo. exposedpublication biasROBE-value
Amniotic fluid problems (polyhydramnios and/or oligohydramnios)1.77 [0.15, 20.65]0%2 studies244not evaluable ROB-
Assisted deliveries (forceps, vacuum, ...)0.82 [0.11, 5.98]27%2 studies194396not evaluable ROB-
Caesarean1.03 [0.88, 1.21]0%3 studies9441,480not evaluable ROB-
Gestational diabetes0.42 [0.11, 1.61]0%4 studies11152not evaluable ROB-
Preeclampsia1.24 [0.92, 1.67]0%4 studies53,7351,367not evaluable ROB-
6 non statistically significant endpoints reported in only one study

Neonatal disorders
Adverse outcome OR 95%CII2k No. casesNo. exposedpublication biasROBE-value
Feeding difficulty1.49 [0.22, 9.94]0%3 studies341not evaluable ROB-
Low Apgar score (< 7) (at 1 min)1.18 [0.80, 1.73]0%5 studies1241,022