Tenofovir (all routes except local)

Table   Graphic     exposition period:

Congenital malformations
Adverse outcome OR 95%CII2k No. casesNo. exposedpublication biasROB
All congenital malformations (majors, minors, majors and minors, or unspecified)0.99 [0.81, 1.21]0%12 studies1,4232,364low ROB
Major congenital malformations1.14 [0.85, 1.54]0%9 studies4491,284not evaluable ROB
Congenital heart defects0.85 [0.47, 1.55]0%2 studies7996not evaluable ROB
Limb defects0.89 [0.44, 1.78]0%2 studies4996not evaluable ROB
Microcephaly / Small head circumference for gestational age0.98 [0.71, 1.37]0%3 studies1521,171not evaluable ROB
Nervous system anomalies1.96 [0.38, 10.03]30%2 studies1996not evaluable ROB
Eye, ear, face and neck malformations1.42 [0.37, 5.52]0%2 studies996not evaluable ROB
Urinary malformations1.00 [0.38, 2.63]0%2 studies3996not evaluable ROB
Hypospadias--0 study
Minor congenital malformations--0 study
3 non statistically significant endpoints reported in only one study

Growth parameters and prematurity
Adverse outcome OR 95%CII2k No. casesNo. exposedpublication biasROB
Preterm (< 37 weeks)0.89 [0.78, 1.02]50%29 studies5,30516,149low ROB
Low birth weight (< 2500g)0.97 [0.80, 1.17]47%18 studies2,0698,480low ROB
Small for gestational age (weight)0.81 [0.67, 0.99]74%17 studies4,36114,089probable ROB
Very preterm (28 to 32 weeks)0.93 [0.61, 1.42]79%8 studies7589,791not evaluable ROB
Very low birth weight (< 1500g)0.93 [0.48, 1.81]47%4 studies1103,067not evaluable ROB
Small for gestational age (length)1.09 [0.72, 1.64]0%3 studies142377not evaluable ROB
Large for gestational age (weight)0.80 [0.55, 1.17]12%2 studies1981,736not evaluable ROB
Macrosomia (> 4000g)2.66 [0.34, 20.58]0%2 studies5130not evaluable ROB
1 non statistically significant endpoints reported in only one study

Maternal consequences
Adverse outcome OR 95%CII2k No. casesNo. exposedpublication biasROB
Caesarean1.10 [0.92, 1.33]0%13 studies8701,617low ROB
Maternal liver disorder / failure during pregnancy1.05 [0.71, 1.55]18%7 studies1531,044not evaluable ROB
Postpartum hemorrhage0.79 [0.38, 1.67]0%5 studies30610not evaluable ROB
Preeclampsia0.77 [0.40, 1.48]37%4 studies1241,447not evaluable ROB
Maternal consequences (as a whole)0.89 [0.56, 1.43]0%2 studies93239not evaluable ROB
Gestational diabete0.95 [0.50, 1.80]67%2 studies1411,291not evaluable ROB
Placenta previa--0 study
2 non statistically significant endpoints reported in only one study

Neonatal disorders
Adverse outcome OR 95%CII2k No. casesNo. exposedpublication biasROB
Low Apgar score (< 7) (at 1 min)1.42 [0.50, 4.07]0%4 studies22603not evaluable ROB
Neonatal death (< 28 days of life)1.07 [0.36, 3.16]73%4 studies1134,390not evaluable ROB
Hearing loss / Auditory deficit0.80 [0.41, 1.54]0%2 studies623not evaluable ROB
Infant head circumference abnormalities1.10 [0.80, 1.51]0%3 studies1861,082not evaluable ROB
Metabolic disorders in neonate/infant0.71 [0.48, 1.06]0%2 studies21not evaluable ROB
Neonatal disorders (as a whole)1.04 [0.70, 1.54]0%2 studies124359not evaluable ROB
Very low Apgar score (< 5) (at 1 min)1.59 [0.20, 12.44]0%2 studies3220not evaluable ROB
6 non statistically significant endpoints reported in only one study

Long term consequences
Adverse outcome OR 95%CII2k No. casesNo. exposedpublication biasROB
Child/Infant weight abnormalities (> 1 year)1.35 [0.95, 1.94]0%3 studies138712not evaluable ROB
Child/Infant death (> 28 days of life)0.49 [0.18, 1.35]0%2 studies18192not evaluable ROB
Child/Infant lenght abnormalities (> 1 year)1.26 [0.65, 2.44]37%2 studies83255not evaluable ROB

Intrauterine deaths
Adverse outcome OR 95%CII2k No. casesNo. exposedpublication biasROB
Late intrauterine deaths (> 22 weeks)0.70 [0.43, 1.14]72%11 studies49611,431critical ROB
Intrauterine deaths (as a whole or unspecified)1.04 [0.79, 1.37]0%5 studies336971not evaluable ROB
Early intrauterine death (< 22 weeks)1.01 [0.72, 1.43]0%3 studies226425not evaluable ROB
Elective/induced termination of pregnancy1.28 [0.77, 2.14]0%2 studies79616not evaluable ROB