Carbamazepine (Epilepsy)

Table   Graphic     exposition period:

Congenital malformations
Adverse outcome OR 95%CII2k No. casesNo. exposedpublication biasROBE-value
All congenital malformations (majors, minors, majors and minors, or unspecified)1.62 [1.34, 1.95]7%29 studies7818,918low ROB2.62 [2.02; .]
Major congenital malformations1.65 [1.38, 1.98]0%23 studies6547,897low ROB2.69 [2.10; .]
Congenital heart defects1.29 [0.81, 2.05]16%11 studies1136,510low ROB-
Minor congenital malformations2.28 [0.84, 6.14]31%6 studies75211not evaluable ROB-
Neural Tube Defects2.40 [1.00, 5.77]0%7 studies245,199not evaluable ROB-
Spina bifida2.04 [1.05, 3.97]0%6 studies61,812serious ROB3.49 [1.27; .]
Hypospadias0.97 [0.58, 1.64]0%7 studies364,672not evaluable ROB-
Limb defects1.41 [0.70, 2.83]0%5 studies323,379not evaluable ROB-
Microcephaly / Small head circumference for gestational age1.02 [0.43, 2.44]27%5 studies40373not evaluable ROB-
Polydactyly2.73 [0.53, 14.09]0%4 studies62,042not evaluable ROB-
Cleft lip with or without cleft palate0.59 [0.09, 4.07]0%3 studies31,238not evaluable ROB-
Hip dislocation and/or dysplasia2.46 [0.14, 43.93]0%2 studies14not evaluable ROB-
Urinary malformations1.19 [0.42, 3.39]44%3 studies333,252not evaluable ROB-
Club foot / Talipes equinovarus2.72 [0.21, 34.91]0%2 studies223not evaluable ROB-
Digestive system anomalies0.69 [0.24, 1.99]0%2 studies142,147not evaluable ROB-
Oro-facial clefts1.27 [0.55, 2.93]0%3 studies234,647not evaluable ROB-
Ano-rectal atresia and stenosis0.65 [0.02, 17.40]-1 study111not evaluable ROB-
Congenital cataract0.65 [0.02, 17.40]-1 study111not evaluable ROB-
Craniosynostosis3.00 [0.05, 194.76]-1 study3not evaluable ROB-
Down syndrom / Trisomy 213.00 [0.05, 194.76]-1 study3not evaluable ROB-
Eye defects0.49 [0.16, 1.52]0%2 studies13874not evaluable ROB-
Nervous system anomalies9.13 [0.51, 162.59]-1 study6490not evaluable ROB-
Chromosomal abnormalities8.20 [0.42, 158.93]-1 study3805not evaluable ROB-
Cleft palate2.19 [0.09, 54.89]-1 study172not evaluable ROB-
Diaphragmatic hernia0.90 [0.11, 7.31]-1 studynot evaluable ROB-
Ear, face and neck anomalies0.23 [0.01, 4.86]-1 study2805not evaluable ROB-
Genital anomalies0.93 [0.25, 3.49]-1 study9805not evaluable ROB-

Growth parameters and prematurity
Adverse outcome OR 95%CII2k No. casesNo. exposedpublication biasROBE-value
Preterm (< 37 weeks)1.05 [0.85, 1.29]0%14 studies160,9821,677low ROB-
Small for gestational age (weight)1.17 [0.79, 1.73]43%10 studies41,7823,995low ROB-
Low birth weight (< 2500g)1.16 [0.71, 1.92]50%4 studies2931,414not evaluable ROB-
Large for gestational age (weight)0.88 [0.59, 1.32]0%2 studies1101,092not evaluable ROB-
Macrosomia (> 4000g)1.04 [0.77, 1.42]0%3 studies727278not evaluable ROB-
Large head circumference for gestational age0.29 [0.01, 16.12]-1 study26not evaluable ROB-
Very preterm (28 to 32 weeks)3.02 [0.64, 14.32]-1 study10176not evaluable ROB-

Maternal consequences
Adverse outcome OR 95%CII2k No. casesNo. exposedpublication biasROBE-value
Caesarean1.03 [0.88, 1.21]0%3 studies9441,480not evaluable ROB-
Preeclampsia1.07 [0.59, 1.94]0%4 studies53,648135not evaluable ROB-
Assisted deliveries (forceps, vacuum, ...)0.82 [0.11, 5.98]27%2 studies194396not evaluable ROB-
Gestational diabetes0.42 [0.11, 1.61]0%4 studies11152not evaluable ROB-
Amniotic fluid problems (polyhydramnios and/or oligohydramnios)1.77 [0.15, 20.65]0%2 studies244not evaluable ROB-
Postpartum hemorrhage1.18 [0.88, 1.58]-1 study342388not evaluable ROB-
Abruptio placentae (retroplacental hematoma)1.07 [0.37, 3.08]-1 study20,260not evaluable ROB-
Polyhydramnios0.23 [0.00, 17.06]-1 study18not evaluable ROB-
Maternal consequences (as a whole)2.53 [0.59, 10.85]-1 study1531not evaluable ROB-
Maternal death0.37 [0.01, 19.78]-1 study29not evaluable ROB-
Maternal liver disorder / failure during pregnancy1.15 [0.04, 30.40]-1 study129not evaluable ROB-

Neonatal disorders
Adverse outcome OR 95%CII2k No. casesNo. exposedpublication biasROBE-value
Low Apgar score (< 7) (at 5 min)1.56 [0.84, 2.89]0%4 studies56794not evaluable ROB-
Neonatal medical care1.19 [0.91, 1.54]0%5 studies2,0821,021not evaluable ROB-
Low Apgar score (< 7) (at 1 min)1.16 [0.79, 1.71]0%4 studies1211,014not evaluable ROB-
Feeding difficulty1.49 [0.22, 9.94]0%3 studies341not evaluable ROB-
Neonatal disorders (as a whole)1.04 [0.37, 2.96]0%2 studies2330not evaluable