Carbimazole, Thiamazole (Methimazole)

Table   Graphic     exposition period:

Congenital malformations
Adverse outcome OR 95%CII2k No. casesNo. exposedpublication biasROB
All congenital malformations (majors, minors, majors and minors, or unspecified)1.40 [1.14, 1.72]26%13 studies249,1324,773not evaluable unclear
Major congenital malformations1.78 [1.18, 2.69]8%7 studies2051,852not evaluable unclear
Genital anomalies1.11 [0.75, 1.63]0%3 studies25,7662,856not evaluable critical
Limb defects0.85 [0.65, 1.12]0%3 studies74,5332,856not evaluable critical
Respiratory system anomalies1.62 [1.11, 2.37]0%3 studies15,9982,856not evaluable critical
Urinary malformations1.69 [1.08, 2.67]0%3 studies17,6452,856not evaluable critical
Carbimazole embryopathy14.62 [10.40, 20.55]0%6 studies2,3164,301not evaluable unclear
Eye defects2.38 [1.21, 4.71]0%2 studies2,4931,736not evaluable critical
Congenital heart defects1.73 [1.40, 2.15]0%3 studies77,4052,856not evaluable critical
Digestive system anomalies2.99 [2.05, 4.36]0%3 studies15,2732,856not evaluable critical
Severe congenital heart defect0.87 [0.25, 3.03]0%2 studies7391,311not evaluable unclear
Abdominal wall defects5.44 [2.63, 11.23]0%2 studies9331,736not evaluable critical
Ear, face and neck anomalies0.58 [0.08, 4.33]0%2 studies9121,736not evaluable critical
Nervous system anomalies2.85 [1.39, 5.87]0%2 studies5,8521,282not evaluable critical
Omphalocele9.70 [3.27, 28.78]0%3 studies1631,334not evaluable unclear
Syndromes and chromosomal abnormalities1.16 [0.62, 2.17]0%2 studies5,5531,736not evaluable critical
Ano-rectal atresia and stenosis1.77 [0.22, 14.34]13%2 studies41,254not evaluable unclear
Atresia of bile ducts2.94 [0.36, 24.10]0%2 studies31,254not evaluable unclear
Cardiac septal defects1.87 [1.14, 3.06]-1 study1,097not evaluable critical
Congenital hydronephrosis4.41 [0.48, 40.36]0%2 studies31,254not evaluable unclear
Hypospadias3.81 [0.32, 46.05]0%2 studies11,254not evaluable unclear
Oro-facial clefts1.54 [0.19, 12.70]28%2 studies3,4481,143not evaluable unclear
Other congenital malformations (Q80-84)2.32 [0.38, 14.27]50%2 studies2,0221,736not evaluable critical
Ventricular septal defect1.31 [0.56, 3.06]0%2 studies251,254not evaluable unclear
Ear malformations9.60 [0.19, 485.50]-1 study162not evaluable critical
Situs inversus5.49 [0.58, 51.80]0%2 studies251,311not evaluable unclear
Aortic valve atresia/stenosis0.52 [0.02, 12.68]-1 study11,231not evaluable critical
Aplasia cutis congenita23.36 [1.33, 409.42]-1 study71,231not evaluable critical
Atresia or stenosis of other parts of small intestine4.65 [0.19, 114.23]-1 study11,231not evaluable critical
Atrial septal defect0.52 [0.02, 12.68]-1 study11,231not evaluable critical
Brachydactyly1.55 [0.03, 78.10]-1 study1,231not evaluable critical
Choanal atresia25.89 [7.52, 89.13]0%2 studies11992not evaluable unclear
Chromosomal abnormalities0.32 [0.02, 6.82]-1 study2124not evaluable unclear
Cleft lip with or without cleft palate0.31 [0.01, 6.45]-1 study21,231not evaluable critical
Club foot / Talipes equinovarus0.52 [0.02, 12.68]-1 study11,231not evaluable critical
Congenital cataract0.52 [0.02, 12.68]-1 study11,231not evaluable critical
Craniosynostosis1.55 [0.10, 24.79]-1 study21,231not evaluable critical
Diaphragmatic hernia0.52 [0.02, 12.68]-1 study11,231not evaluable critical
Down syndrom / Trisomy 212.33 [0.39, 13.94]-1 study51,231not evaluable critical
Eye, ear, face and neck malformations1.00 [0.37, 2.69]-1 study9,4471,120not evaluable critical
Intestinal malrotation0.22 [0.01, 4.28]-1 study31,231not evaluable critical
Multicystic renal dysplasia1.55 [0.10, 24.79]-1 study21,231not evaluable critical
Oesophageal atresia with or without tracheo-oesophageal fistula7.76 [0.37, 161.69]-1 study21,231not evaluable critical
Other congenital malformations (Q80 to Q99)1.91 [0.95, 3.83]-1 study10,0311,120not evaluable critical
Patent ductus arterious13.98 [0.75, 259.95]-1 study41,231not evaluable critical
Polydactyly21.09 [0.41, 1087.34]-1 study23not evaluable unclear
Pulmonary artery stenosis0.52 [0.02, 12.68]-1 study11,231not evaluable critical
Pulmonary valve stenosis7.01 [0.28, 177.06]-1 study123not evaluable unclear
Spina bifida4.65 [0.19, 114.23]-1 study11,231not evaluable critical
Sturge-Weber syndrome4.65 [0.19, 114.23]-1 study11,231not evaluable critical
Syndactyly0.52 [0.02, 12.68]-1 study11,231not evaluable critical
Tetralogy of Fallot4.65 [0.19, 114.23]-1 study11,231not evaluable critical
Transposition of the great vessels0.52 [0.02, 12.68]-1 study11,231not evaluable critical

Growth parameters and prematurity
Adverse outcome OR 95%CII2k No. casesNo. exposedpublication biasROB
Preterm (< 37 weeks)1.21 [0.65, 2.23]0%4 studies184227not evaluable unclear
Low birth weight (< 2500g)1.60 [0.46, 5.51]25%2 studies14180not evaluable unclear
Small for gestational age (weight)1.25 [0.70, 2.24]-1 study38173not evaluable critical

Maternal consequences
Adverse outcome OR 95%CII2k No. casesNo. exposedpublication biasROB
Maternal liver disorder / failure during pregnancy2.35 [0.10, 58.31]-1 study179not evaluable critical
Caesarean--0 study
Gestational diabete0.54 [0.02, 13.46]-1 study1124not evaluable unclear
Preeclampsia0.54 [0.02, 13.46]-1 study1124not evaluable unclear

Neonatal disorders
Adverse outcome OR 95%CII2k No. casesNo. exposedpublication biasROB
Goiter0.96 [0.20, 4.60]0%3 studies661not evaluable unclear
Hearing loss / Auditory deficit3.68 [0.41, 32.73]0%2 studies41,254not evaluable unclear
Hypothyroidism (fetal/neonatal)0.88 [0.10, 7.50]0%3 studies154not evaluable unclear
Neonatal hyperthyrotropinemia0.63 [0.19, 2.07]-1 study1343not evaluable unclear
Hyperthyroidism / Thyrotoxicosis (fetal/neonatal)0.77 [0.06, 9.94]0%2 studies118not evaluable unclear

Intrauterine deaths
Adverse outcome OR 95%CII2k No. casesNo. exposedpublication biasROB
Elective termination of pregnancy3.39 [1.80, 6.37]0%2 studies461,550not evaluable unclear
Perinatal death0.70 [0.25, 1.94]0%2 studies161,550not evaluable unclear
Early intrauterine death (< 22 weeks)3.94 [0.70, 22.25]93%2 studies3321,654not evaluable critical
Intrauterine deaths (as a whole or unspecified)1.97 [0.89, 4.35]0%2 studies26131not evaluable unclear

Neuro-developmental disorders
Adverse outcome OR 95%CII2k No. casesNo. exposedpublication biasROB
Neuro-developmental disorders (as a whole)5.34 [2.17, 13.10]-1 study69220not evaluable NA
Cognitive developmental delay – children (3-6 years old)0.34 [0.12, 0.95]-1 study23not evaluable unclear
Language disorders/delay0.79 [0.29, 2.13]-1 study23not evaluable unclear

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