Carbimazole, Thiamazole (Methimazole)

Table   Graphic     exposition period:

Congenital malformations
Adverse outcome OR 95%CII2k No. casesNo. exposedpublication biasROB
All congenital malformations (majors, minors, majors and minors, or unspecified)1.40 [1.14, 1.72]26%13 studies249,1324,773low ROB
Major congenital malformations1.78 [1.18, 2.69]8%7 studies2051,852serious ROB
Genital anomalies1.11 [0.75, 1.63]0%3 studies25,7662,856not evaluable ROB
Limb defects0.85 [0.65, 1.12]0%3 studies74,5332,856not evaluable ROB
Respiratory system anomalies1.62 [1.11, 2.37]0%3 studies15,9982,856not evaluable ROB
Urinary malformations1.69 [1.08, 2.67]0%3 studies17,6452,856not evaluable ROB
Carbimazole embryopathy14.62 [10.40, 20.55]0%6 studies2,3164,301not evaluable ROB
Eye defects2.38 [1.21, 4.71]0%2 studies2,4931,736not evaluable ROB
Congenital heart defects1.73 [1.40, 2.15]0%3 studies77,4052,856not evaluable ROB
Digestive system anomalies2.99 [2.05, 4.36]0%3 studies15,2732,856not evaluable ROB
Severe congenital heart defect0.87 [0.25, 3.03]0%2 studies7391,311not evaluable ROB
Abdominal wall defects5.44 [2.63, 11.23]0%2 studies9331,736not evaluable ROB
Ear, face and neck anomalies0.58 [0.08, 4.33]0%2 studies9121,736not evaluable ROB
Nervous system anomalies2.85 [1.39, 5.87]0%2 studies5,8521,282not evaluable ROB
Omphalocele9.70 [3.27, 28.78]0%3 studies1631,334not evaluable ROB
Syndromes and chromosomal abnormalities1.16 [0.62, 2.17]0%2 studies5,5531,736not evaluable ROB
Ano-rectal atresia and stenosis1.77 [0.22, 14.34]13%2 studies41,254not evaluable ROB
Atresia of bile ducts2.94 [0.36, 24.10]0%2 studies31,254not evaluable ROB
Cardiac septal defects1.87 [1.14, 3.06]-1 study1,097not evaluable ROB
Congenital hydronephrosis4.41 [0.48, 40.36]0%2 studies31,254not evaluable ROB
Hypospadias3.81 [0.32, 46.05]0%2 studies11,254not evaluable ROB
Oro-facial clefts1.54 [0.19, 12.70]28%2 studies3,4481,143not evaluable ROB
Other congenital malformations (Q80-84)2.32 [0.38, 14.27]50%2 studies2,0221,736not evaluable ROB
Ventricular septal defect1.31 [0.56, 3.06]0%2 studies251,254not evaluable ROB
Ear malformations9.60 [0.19, 485.50]-1 study162not evaluable ROB
Situs inversus5.49 [0.58, 51.80]0%2 studies251,311not evaluable ROB
Aortic valve atresia/stenosis0.52 [0.02, 12.68]-1 study11,231not evaluable ROB
Aplasia cutis congenita23.36 [1.33, 409.42]-1 study71,231not evaluable ROB
Atresia or stenosis of other parts of small intestine4.65 [0.19, 114.23]-1 study11,231not evaluable ROB
Atrial septal defect0.52 [0.02, 12.68]-1 study11,231not evaluable ROB
Brachydactyly1.55 [0.03, 78.10]-1 study1,231not evaluable ROB
Choanal atresia25.89 [7.52, 89.13]0%2 studies11992not evaluable ROB
Chromosomal abnormalities0.32 [0.02, 6.82]-1 study2124not evaluable ROB
Cleft lip with or without cleft palate0.31 [0.01, 6.45]-1 study21,231not evaluable ROB
Club foot / Talipes equinovarus0.52 [0.02, 12.68]-1 study11,231not evaluable ROB
Congenital cataract0.52 [0.02, 12.68]-1 study11,231not evaluable ROB
Craniosynostosis1.55 [0.10, 24.79]-1 study21,231not evaluable ROB
Diaphragmatic hernia0.52 [0.02, 12.68]-1 study11,231not evaluable ROB
Down syndrom / Trisomy 212.33 [0.39, 13.94]-1 study51,231not evaluable ROB
Eye, ear, face and neck malformations1.00 [0.37, 2.69]-1 study9,4471,120not evaluable ROB
Intestinal malrotation0.22 [0.01, 4.28]-1 study31,231not evaluable ROB
Multicystic renal dysplasia1.55 [0.10, 24.79]-1 study21,231not evaluable ROB
Oesophageal atresia with or without tracheo-oesophageal fistula7.76 [0.37, 161.69]-1 study21,231not evaluable ROB
Other congenital malformations (Q80 to Q99)1.91 [0.95, 3.83]-1 study10,0311,120not evaluable ROB
Patent ductus arterious13.98 [0.75, 259.95]-1 study41,231not evaluable ROB
Polydactyly21.09 [0.41, 1087.34]-1 study23not evaluable ROB
Pulmonary artery stenosis0.52 [0.02, 12.68]-1 study11,231not evaluable ROB
Pulmonary valve stenosis7.01 [0.28, 177.06]-1 study123not evaluable ROB
Spina bifida4.65 [0.19, 114.23]-1 study11,231not evaluable ROB
Sturge-Weber syndrome4.65 [0.19, 114.23]-1 study11,231not evaluable ROB
Syndactyly0.52 [0.02, 12.68]-1 study11,231not evaluable ROB
Tetralogy of Fallot4.65 [0.19, 114.23]-1 study11,231not evaluable ROB
Transposition of the great vessels0.52 [0.02, 12.68]-1 study11,231not evaluable ROB

Growth parameters and prematurity
Adverse outcome OR 95%CII2k No. casesNo. exposedpublication biasROB
Preterm (< 37 weeks)1.21 [0.65, 2.23]0%4 studies184227not evaluable ROB
Low birth weight (< 2500g)1.60 [0.46, 5.51]25%2 studies14180not evaluable ROB
Small for gestational age (weight)1.25 [0.70, 2.24]-1 study38173not evaluable ROB

Maternal consequences
Adverse outcome OR 95%CII2k No. casesNo. exposedpublication biasROB
Maternal liver disorder / failure during pregnancy2.35 [0.10, 58.31]-1 study179not evaluable ROB
Caesarean--0 study
Gestational diabete0.54 [0.02, 13.46]-1 study1124not evaluable ROB
Preeclampsia0.54 [0.02, 13.46]-1 study1124not evaluable ROB

Neonatal disorders
Adverse outcome OR 95%CII2k No. casesNo. exposedpublication biasROB
Goiter0.96 [0.20, 4.60]0%3 studies661not evaluable ROB
Hearing loss / Auditory deficit3.68 [0.41, 32.73]0%2 studies41,254not evaluable ROB
Hypothyroidism (fetal/neonatal)0.88 [0.10, 7.50]0%3 studies154not evaluable ROB
Neonatal hyperthyrotropinemia0.63 [0.19, 2.07]-1 study1343not evaluable ROB
Hyperthyroidism / Thyrotoxicosis (fetal/neonatal)0.77 [0.06, 9.94]0%2 studies118not evaluable ROB

Intrauterine deaths
Adverse outcome OR 95%CII2k No. casesNo. exposedpublication biasROB
Elective/induced termination of pregnancy3.39 [1.80, 6.37]0%2 studies461,550not evaluable ROB
Perinatal death0.70 [0.25, 1.94]0%2 studies161,550not evaluable ROB
Early intrauterine death (< 22 weeks)3.94 [0.70, 22.25]93%2 studies3321,654not evaluable ROB
Intrauterine deaths (as a whole or unspecified)1.97 [0.89, 4.35]0%2 studies26131not evaluable ROB

Neuro-developmental disorders
Adverse outcome OR 95%CII2k No. casesNo. exposedpublication biasROB
Neuro-developmental disorders (as a whole)5.34 [2.17, 13.10]-1 study69220not evaluable ROB
Cognitive developmental delay – children (3-6 years old)0.34 [0.12, 0.95]-1 study23not evaluable ROB
Language disorders/delay0.79 [0.29, 2.13]-1 study23not evaluable ROB

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