Thiouracil, propylthiouracil, benzylthiouracil

Table   Graphic     exposition period:

Congenital malformations
Adverse outcome VerdictOR 95%CI I2k No. casesNo. exposedpublication bias
All congenital malformations (majors, minors, majors and minors, or unspecified)0.99 [0.80, 1.24]36%10 studies249,61412,690low
Major congenital malformations0.69 [0.45, 1.06]0%5 studies1091,638not evaluable
Genital anomalies1.22 [0.96, 1.54]0%3 studies25,81111,037not evaluable
Respiratory system anomalies1.22 [0.76, 1.96]33%3 studies16,00711,037not evaluable
Urinary malformations1.63 [1.01, 2.62]38%3 studies17,69611,037not evaluable
Eye defects0.44 [0.06, 3.31]0%2 studies2,4841,107not evaluable
Congenital heart defects1.05 [0.84, 1.31]17%3 studies77,56811,037not evaluable
Limb defects1.20 [1.05, 1.37]0%3 studies74,70611,037not evaluable
Severe congenital heart defect1.20 [0.06, 22.67]70%2 studies7391,446not evaluable
Abdominal wall defects1.19 [0.15, 9.65]0%2 studies9261,107not evaluable
Carbimazole embryopathy1.61 [0.92, 2.79]0%3 studies2,24311,423not evaluable
Digestive system anomalies1.47 [0.59, 3.67]40%2 studies12,04510,148not evaluable
Nervous system anomalies1.09 [0.72, 1.65]0%2 studies5,86810,148not evaluable
Syndromes and chromosomal abnormalities0.84 [0.33, 2.12]0%2 studies5,5471,107not evaluable
Ano-rectal atresia and stenosis2.87 [0.24, 33.74]67%2 studies1,0551,413not evaluable
Aortic valve atresia/stenosis3.29 [0.12, 89.46]70%2 studies4941,412not evaluable
Cardiac septal defects--0 study
Ear malformations35.97 [1.72, 751.88]-1 study2218not evaluable
Ear, face and neck anomalies2.86 [0.55, 14.85]-1 study7218not evaluable
Omphalocele1.29 [0.13, 12.49]0%2 studies1541,446not evaluable
Other congenital malformations (Q80-84)0.37 [0.02, 6.43]-1 study9218not evaluable
Situs inversus15.05 [1.80, 126.08]0%2 studies271,446not evaluable
Aplasia cutis congenita1.36 [0.03, 68.71]-1 study1,399not evaluable
Atresia of bile ducts0.45 [0.02, 11.15]-1 study11,399not evaluable
Atresia or stenosis of other parts of small intestine1.36 [0.03, 68.71]-1 study1,399not evaluable
Atrial septal defect2.73 [0.25, 30.11]-1 study31,399not evaluable
Brachydactyly4.09 [0.17, 100.49]-1 study11,399not evaluable
Chromosomal abnormalities4.02 [0.55, 29.24]-1 study452not evaluable
Cleft lip with or without cleft palate0.68 [0.06, 7.52]-1 study31,399not evaluable
Club foot / Talipes equinovarus0.45 [0.02, 11.15]-1 study11,399not evaluable
Congenital cataract0.45 [0.02, 11.15]-1 study11,399not evaluable
Congenital hydronephrosis6.82 [0.33, 142.23]-1 study21,399not evaluable
Diaphragmatic hernia0.45 [0.02, 11.15]-1 study11,399not evaluable
Down syndrom / Trisomy 211.36 [0.19, 9.69]-1 study41,399not evaluable
Eye, ear, face and neck malformations1.21 [0.89, 1.64]-1 study9,4849,930not evaluable
Hypospadias4.09 [0.17, 100.49]-1 study11,399not evaluable
Intestinal malrotation0.45 [0.05, 4.37]-1 study41,399not evaluable
Multicystic renal dysplasia0.45 [0.02, 11.15]-1 study11,399not evaluable
Oesophageal atresia with or without tracheo-oesophageal fistula1.36 [0.03, 68.71]-1 study1,399not evaluable
Oro-facial clefts0.98 [0.56, 1.72]-1 study3,4589,930not evaluable
Other congenital malformations (Q80 to Q99)1.14 [0.84, 1.55]-1 study10,0649,930not evaluable
Patent ductus arterious4.09 [0.17, 100.49]-1 study11,399not evaluable
Pulmonary artery stenosis0.45 [0.02, 11.15]-1 study11,399not evaluable
Skeletal dysplasia0.45 [0.02, 11.15]-1 study11,399not evaluable
Spina bifida4.09 [0.17, 100.49]-1 study11,399not evaluable
Sturge-Weber syndrome1.36 [0.03, 68.71]-1 study1,399not evaluable
Syndactyly4.09 [0.43, 39.40]-1 study41,399not evaluable
Tetralogy of Fallot4.09 [0.17, 100.49]-1 study11,399not evaluable
Transposition of the great vessels0.45 [0.02, 11.15]-1 study11,399not evaluable
Ventricular septal defect0.99 [0.40, 2.47]-1 study191,399not evaluable
Choanal atresia3.31 [0.20, 54.40]-1 study5847not evaluable
Coarctation of aorta7.97 [1.64, 38.62]-1 study1,13714not evaluable
Gastroschisis1.62 [0.36, 7.42]-1 study1,39312not evaluable
Pulmonary valve stenosis0.71 [0.09, 5.59]-1 study1,51511not evaluable

Growth parameters and prematurity
Adverse outcome VerdictOR 95%CI I2k No. casesNo. exposedpublication bias
preterm (< 37 weeks)1.03 [0.73, 1.46]5%5 studies291832not evaluable
low birth weight (< 2500g)1.41 [1.01, 1.97]0%2 studies185637not evaluable
small for gestational age (weight)1.05 [0.83, 1.32]-1 study479630not evaluable

Maternal consequences
Adverse outcome VerdictOR 95%CI I2k No. casesNo. exposedpublication bias
Maternal liver disorder / failure during pregnancy0.42 [0.02, 10.52]-1 study1556not evaluable
Caesarean1.09 [0.31, 3.78]69%2 studies9795not evaluable
Preeclampsia1.30 [0.05, 32.49]-1 study152not evaluable
Gestational diabete1.30 [0.05, 32.49]-1 study152not evaluable

Neonatal disorders
Adverse outcome VerdictOR 95%CI I2k No. casesNo. exposedpublication bias
Goiter1.35 [0.37, 4.94]0%5 studies8167not evaluable
Hypothyroidism (fetal/neonatal)0.97 [0.18, 5.39]0%4 studies3180not evaluable
Hyperthyroidism / Thyrotoxicosis (fetal/neonatal)0.87 [0.12, 6.53]0%3 studies281not evaluable
Neonatal hyperthyrotropinemia3.82 [0.36, 40.91]57%2 studies1586not evaluable
Hearing loss / Auditory deficit1.36 [0.03, 68.71]-1 study1,399not evaluable

Intrauterine deaths
Adverse outcome VerdictOR 95%CI I2k No. casesNo. exposedpublication bias
Elective termination of pregnancy1.32 [0.72, 2.42]0%3 studies671,745not evaluable
Early intrauterine death (< 22 weeks)1.24 [0.62, 2.47]58%3 studies3941,745not evaluable
Intrauterine deaths (as a whole)1.23 [0.51, 2.93]0%3 studies25102not evaluable
Perinatal death2.00 [0.17, 23.33]59%2 studies191,630not evaluable
Late intrauterine deaths (> 22 weeks)0.20 [0.01, 6.47]74%2 studies9167not evaluable
Ectopic pregnancy--0 study

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